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SB289 
.W4 



West, Augustus Price 

Philippine resins , gums, seed 
oils, and essential oils 



Philippine Resins, Gums, Seed 
Oils, and Essential Oils 



By Augustus P. West, Ph. D., 

Professor of Chemistry, Universitv of the Philifipiii, 

William H, Brown, Ph, D., 

Chief, Division of Investigation, Bureau of Forestry; Professor of Botany, 

IJniversily of the Philif)pin/'s; and Plant Pkysiolofist.. Bureau of Sdence 




'-^^nS^ 



Defyartment of Agriculture and Natural Resourct 
Bureau of Forestry 

Bulletin No, 20 

Irthur F. Fisc/ier, Daeciu/ ut ioresiii 



MANILA 

aUftEAU OF PRINTING 

1920 



( / 




9^. 







FIGURE 1. A GROUP OF LARGE DIPTEROCARPS IN THE FOREST OF NORTHERN 

NEGROS. 



Philippine Resins, Gums, Seed 
Oils, and Essential Oils 



By Augustus P. fVest, Ph. D., 

Professor of Chemistry, University of the Philippines 
and 

William H. Brown, Ph. D., 

Chief, Division of Investigation, Bureau of Forestry; Professor of Botany, 
University of the Philippines; and Plant Physiologist, Bureau of Science 




~^^!^' 



Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources 
Bureau of Forestry 

Bulletin No, 20 

Arthur F. Fischer, Director of Forestry 



MANILA 
BUREAU OF PRINTING 

1920 

168837 



w^i 



CONTENTS 



Page. 

Illustrations 7 

Preface n 

Introduction 13 

Resins 16 

Family Pinaceae 16 

, Agathis alba (almaciga), the source of Manila copal 16 

Pinus insularis (Benguet pine), a source of turpentine 28 

Pinus merkusii (Mindoro pine) , a source of turpentine 32 

Family Leguminosae 36 

Sindora inermis (kayu-galu), the source of kayu-galu oil 36 

Sindora supa (supa), the source of oil of supa 36 

Family Burseraceae 38 

Canarium luzonicum (pili), the source of Manila elemi 38 

Canarium villosum (pagsahiiigin) , the source of pagsahi- 

iTgin resin 47 

Family Dipterocarpaceae 48 

Anisoptera thurifera (palosapis), the source of palosapis 

resin 50 

Dipterocarpus grandiflorus (apitong), a source of balau 52 

Dipterocarpus vernicifluus (panau), a source of balau 60 

•Gums 65 

Family Orchidaceae 66 

Geodorum nutans, a source of glue 66 

Family Moraceae 68 

Artocarpus cumingiana (anubing) , a source of chewing gum.. 68 

Artocarpus elastica (gumihan), a source of chewing gum.... 68 

Family Leguminosae 70 

* Acacia farnesiana (aroma), the source of a gum similar to 

gum arabic 70 

Sesbania grandiflora (katurai), the source of a gum resem- 
bling gum arabic 70 

Family Euphorbiaceae 71 

Macaranga tanarius, a source of glue 71 

Family Sapotaceae 71 

Achras sapota (chico), the source of gum chicle 71 

Palaquium ahernianum (kalipaya), a source of gutta-percha 74 

Payena leerii, a source of gutta-percha 80 

Family Apocynaceae 82 

Chonemorpha elastica (lisid), a rubber vine 82 

Parameria philippinensis (dugtong-ahas) , a rubber vine 86 

Family Borraginaceae 86 

• Cordia myxa (anonang), a source of paste 86 

3 



4 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

Page. 

Seed Oils 88 

Family Palmae 91 

Cocos nucifera (coconut), the source of coconut oil 91 

Elaeis guineensis (oil palm), the source of palm oil 101 

Family Hernandiaceae 101 

Hernandia ovigera, a source of fat used in lamps and for 

making candles 101 

Family Moringaceae 102 

Moringa oleifera (horse-radish tree) , the source of ben oil.. 102 

Family Pittosporaceae 103 

Pittosporum pentandrum (mamalis) , the source of mamalis 

oil 103 

Pittosporum resiniferum (petroleum nut), the source of oil 

of petroleum nuts 104 

Family Leguminosae 106 

Arachis hypogaea (peanut), the source of peanut oil 106 

Pachyri'hizus erosus (singkamas) 108 

Pithecolobium dulce (kamachile), the source of kamachile 

oil 108 

Pongamia pinnata (bani), the source of pongam oil 109 

Tamar Indus indica (sampalok), the source of tamarind- 
seed oil 110 

Family Simarubaceae 112 

Samadera indica (manunggal), the source of manunggal oil.. 112 

Family Burseraceae 112 

Canarium ovatum (pili), the source of pili-nut oil 112 

Family Meliaceae 115 

Chisocheton cumingianus (balukanag), the source of balu- 

kanag oil 115 

Chisocheton pentandrus (katong-machin), the source of 

katong-machin oil 116 

Xylocarpus moluccensis (piagau), the source of piagau oil.... 116 

Family Euphorbiaceae 118 

Aleurites spp. Tung oil and lumbang oils 118 

Aleurites moluccana (lumbang), the source of lumbang oil.. 122 
Aleurites trisperma (bagilumbang) , the source of bagilum- 

bang oil 132 

Croton tiglium, the source of croton oil 136 

Jatropha curcas (tubang-bakod) , the source of physic-nut oil.. 138 

Jatropha multifida (mana) 140 

Mallotus philippinensis (banato), the source of banato oil.. 140 

Ricinus communis (tangan-tangan), the source of castor oil.. 141 

Family Anacardiaceae 144 

Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut), the source of cashew- 
nut oil 144 

Family Celastraceae .' 145 

Celastrus paniculata 145 

Family Sapindaceae 145 

Ganophyllum falcatum (araiigen), the source of arangen 

oil 145 

Nephelium lappaceum (usau), the source of rambutan 

tallow 146 

Nephelium mutabile (bulala) 148 



CONTENTS 5 

• 

Seed Oils — Continued. Pagt. 

Family Bombacaceae 148 

Ceiba pentandra (Icapoli), the source of kapok oil 148 

Family Sterculiaceae 152 

Sterculia foetida (kalumpang) , the source of kalumpang oil.. 152 

Family Guttiferae 154 

Calophyllum inophyllum (bitaog) , the source of bitaog oil.... 154 

Family Dipterocarpaceae 158 

Isoptera borneensis, a source of Borneo tallow 158 

Shorea balangeran (gisok), a source of Borneo tallow 158 

Family Flacourtiaceae 159 

Pangium edule (paiTg-i), the source of pitjoeng oil 159 

Family Lecythidaceae 159 

• Barringtonia asiatica (botong), the source of botong oil.... 159 

Barringtonia racemosa (putat), the source of putat oil 160 

Family Combretaceae 160 

Terminalia catappa (talisai), the source of Indian almond oil 160 

Family Sapotaceae 164 

Bassia betis (betis), the source of betis oil 164 

Palaquium philippense (malakmalak) , the source of malak- 

malak oil 166 

Family Apocynaceae 166 

Cerbera manghas (baraibai), the source of baraibai oil 166 

Family Pedaliaceae 166 

Sesamum orientale, the source of sesame oil 166 

Essential Oils 171 

Family Gramineae 172 

J A.ndropogon citratus (tanglad or lemon grass), the source of 

lemon-grass oil 172 

Andropogon nardus var. hamatulus 174 

Andropogon zizanioides (vetiver or moras), the source of 

vetiver oil 175 

Family Araceae 179 

Acorus calamus (lubigan or sweet flag), the source of cala- 
mus oil 179 

Family Zingiberaceae 180 

Curcuma longa (dilau) 180 

Curcuma zedoaria (barak) 181 

Zingiber officinale (ginger) 182 

Family Magnoliaceae 183 

Michelia champaca (champaka), the source of champaka oil 183 

Michelia longiflora (champakang-puti) 186 

Family Annonaceae 187 

Canangium odoratum (ilang-ilang) , the source of ilang-Ilang 

oil '. 187 

Family Lauraceae 198 

Cinnamomum iners, a source of cinnamon 198 

Cinnamomum mercadoi (kalingag), the source of kalingag 

oil 198 

Cinnamomum mindanaense (Mindanao cinnamon), a source 

of cinnamon 200 



6 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

C 

Essential Oils — Continued, Page. 

Family Le^minosae 202 

Acacia farnesiana (aroma), the source of cassie flowers 202 

Kingiodendron alternifolium (batete), the source of batete 

incense 206 

Family Rutaceae 206 

Citrus hystrix (kabuyau), the source of kabuyau oil 206 

Citrus micrantha var. microcarpa (samuyau), the source 

of samuyau oil 208 

Citrus Sp. (gurong-guro) , a source of hair wash 210 

Clausena anisum-olens (kayumanis) 210 

Toddalia asiatica 212 

Family Verbenaceae 214 

Lantana camara (lantana) 214. 

Family Labiatae 215 

Ocimum basilicum, the source of sweet basil oil 215 

Ocimum sanctum, the source of holy basil oil 216 

Pogostemon cablin (patchouli or kablin), the source of pat- 
chouli oil 217 

Family Compositae 220 

Blumea balsamifera (sambong), a source of camphor 220 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Fig. 1. A group of large dipterocarps in the forest of northern Ne- 

gros. Frontispiece. 

Page. 

2. Agathis alba (almaciga) , the source of Manila copal 17 

3. Trunk of Agathis alba (almaciga), with scars from which 

Manila copal is exuding 19 

4. Trunk of Agathis alba (almaciga) 21 

5. Forest of Pinus insularis (Benguet pine) in Benguet moun- 

tains 29 

6. Pinus insularis (Benguet pine), a source of turpentine 31 

7. Trunk of Pinus insularis (Benguet pine) 33 

8. Pinus 'nierkusii (Mindoro pine), a source of turpentine 34 

9. Sindora inermis (kayu-galu) , the source of kayu-galu oil 35 

10. Sindora supa (supa) , the source of oil of supa 37 

11. Canarium luzonicum (pili), the source of Manila elemi 39 

12. Resin exuding from a tapped Canarium 41 

13. CanariuTH villosuTn (pagsahingin), the source of pagsahiiigin 

resin 49 

14. Anisoptera thurifera (palosapis), the source of palosapis 

resin 51 

15. Bark and leaves of Anisoptera thurifera (palosapis) 53 

16. Dipterocarjnis grandiflorus (apitong), a source of balau.... 55 

17. Bark and leaves of Dipterocarpus grandiflorus (apitong).... 56 
18.. Fruits of Dipterocarpus grandiflorus (apitong) 57 

19. Dipterocarpus grandiflorus (apitong) boxed for resin 59 

20. Dipterocarpus vernicifiuus (panau), a source of balau 61 

21. Dipterocarpus vernicifiuus (panau) 63 

22. Bark and leaves of Dipterocarpus vernicifiuus (panau), a 

source of balau 64 

23. Artocarpus cumingiana (anubing) , a source of chewing gum.. 67 

24. Artocarpus elastica (gumihan), a source of chewing gum.... 69 

25. Palaquium ahernianum (kalipaya), a source of gutta-percha.. 73 

26. Tapping a gutta-percha tree in such a manner that all the 

milk is collected in shells beneath and none lost. Done 

by Moros in Tawi-Tawi 75 

27. A gutta-percha tree tapped in such a manner that the 

flowing milk is not all absorbed by the chopped-up bark, 
but much of it is lost on the ground below. Tucuran, 

District of Zamboanga, Mindanao 77 

28. Gutta-percha as it reaches the market 79 

29. Leaves and fruit of Payena leerii, a source of gutta-percha.. 81 



8 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

Page. 

Fig. 30. Chonemorpha elastica (lisid) , a rubber vine 83 

31. Chonemorpha elastica in the forest 84 

32. Parameria philippinensis , a rubber vine 85 

33. A piece of dry bark from Parameria philippinensis, broken 

and pulled apart, showing the rubber 87 

34. Coconut palms growing on the beach at San Ramon, Min- 

danao 93 

35. Opening coconuts for drying at Pagsanjan, Laguna 95 

36. Sun-drying coconuts, showing the nuts on the trays ready 

to be pushed under the shelter 97 

37. Kiln used for drying coconuts 99 

38. Pittosporum resinifernm (petroleum nut), the source of 

oil of petroleum nuts ^ 105 

39. Pongamia pinnata (bani), the source of pongam oil Ill 

40. Canarium ovatum (pili), the source of pili-nut oil 113 

41. Chisocheton cu^ningianiis (balukanag), the source of balu- 

kanag oil 117 

42. Chisocheton pentandrus (katong-machin) , the source of ka- 

tong-machin oil 119 

43. Aleurites mohiccana (lumbang), the source of lumbang oil, 

bark, fruits, and leaves 123 

44. Aleurites moluccana (lumbang), dried fruits and seeds... 125 

45. Aleurites moluccana (lumbang), bark, flowers, and leaves.... 127 

46. Aleurites trisperma (bagilumbang) , the source of bagilum- 

bang oil 133 

47. Croton tiglium, the source of croton oil 137 

48. Jatropha curcas (tiibang-bakod) , the source of physic-nut 

oil 139 

49. Ricinus communis (tangan-tafigan), the source of castor oil 143 

50. Ganophyllum falcatum (araiigen) 147 

51. Ceiba jientandra (kapok), the source of kapok oil 149 

52. Sterculia foetida (kalumpang), the source of kalumpang oil.. 151 

53. Fruits of Sterculia foetida (kalumpang) 153 

54. Calophyllum inophylluyn (bitaog), the source of bitaog oil.... 155 

55. Terminalia catappa (talisai), the source of Indian almond 

oil 161 

56. Bassia betis (betis), the source of betis oil 163 

57. Trunk of Bassia betis (betis) 165 

58. Sesamum orientale, the source of sesame oil 167 

59. Andropogon zizanioides (vetiver or moras), the source of 

vetiver oil 177 

60. Michelia champaca (champaka), the source of champaka oil 185 

61. Canangium odoratum (ilang-ilang), the source of ilang- 

ilang oil 189 

62. Canangium odoratum (ilang-ilang) 191 

63. Cinnamomum iners, a source of cinnamon 197 

64. Cinnamomum mercadoi (kaliiigag), the source of kalingag 

oil 199 

65. Cinnamomum mindanaense (Mindanao cinnamon), a source 

of cinnamon 201 



ILLUSTRATIONS 9 

Page. 

Fig. 66. Acacia farnesiana (aroma), the source of cassie flowers 203 

67. Kingiodendron alteryiifolium (batete), the source of batete 

incense 205 

68. Trunk of Kingiodend7-on alternifolium (batete) 207 

69. Citrus hystrix (kabuyau), the source of kabuyau oil 209 

70. Citrus micrantha var. microcarpa (samuyau), the source 

of samuyau oil 211 

71. Clausena aniswm-olens (kayumanis) 213 

72. Pogostemon cablin (patchouli or kablin), the source of 

patchouli oil 219 

73. Blumea balsamifera (sambong), a source of camphor 221 



PREFACE 

For a number of years there has been in the Philippines con- 
siderable trade in the two resins, Manila copal or almaciga * and 
Manila elemi or brea blanca (Span., "white pitch"). The other 
resinous products of the Philippines have been used only to a 
very limited extent, while until recently there has been little 
commerce in Philippine oils other than ilang-ilang. 

Copra, which is the dried meat of the coconut and the source 
of the coconut oil of commerce, was formerly shipped from the 
Philippines in large quantities. Of late, however, there has been 
an extensive development of the coconut-oil industry in the 
Archipelago, a number of oil mills having been established in 
Manila and other parts of the Islands. Consequently, coconut 
oil is now expressed from the copra in Philippine oil mills and 
exported to other countries. The local commercial activities in 
this industry have been greatly accelerated by conditions due to 
the recent world conflict. 

This development of the coconut-oil industry has naturally led 
to a greatly increased interest in other oils and similar products ; 
and so it seems fitting at this time to present a bulletin giving 
a short account of oils and resins which are the basis of com- 
mercial industries or which offer promising possibilities. From 
the discussions given in the introduction and in connection with 
the various species, it will be seen that a number of industries 
could be profitably developed, and that there are other new ones 
which are worthy of serious consideration. 

In discussing the various species of plants, we have used the 
following system: On the left of the page is given the scientific 
name, and on the right the local name adopted as official by the 
Bureau of Forestry. A list of local names in the various dialects 
follows. The first part of the discussion takes up the general 
uses and importance of the products concerned. This is suc- 
ceeded by a more technical description of the products, after 

* The Spanish name almaciga which is properly the equivalent of the 
English gum mastic (the product of Pistachia lentiscus) was incori'ectly 
applied by the Spaniards in the Philippines to the resin of Agathis alba, 
a coniferous tree, and has become the commercial name, throughout the 
Islands, of the resin known in Europe and America as Manila copal. 

11 



12 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

which a description of the species is given, followed by a short 
account of its distribution and abundance. The local names 
are very convenient as assisting in the identification of the 
species, but are by no means infallible guides. It is believed, 
however, that by use of the local names, descriptions, and 
figures, it will be possible in most cases to identify the various 
species. 

In preparing this bulletin, the writers have received valuable 
assistance from many sources, but particularly from Mr. E. D. 
Merrill, Director of the Bureau of Science, and Mr. E, E. 
Schneider, wood expert of the Bureau of Forestry. The native 
names have been revised by Mr. Schneider, who is conversant < 
with several Philippine dialects, and who has taken great interest 
in the proper spelling of local names of Philippine plants. The 
original drawings were made under the direction of Mr. J. K. 
Santos by Messrs. F. de la Costa, P. C. Cagampan, J. Pascasio, 
S. Calusin, and Miss Maria Pastrana. 

The writers are indebted to the Bureau of Science for the cuts 
used for figures 1, 18, 26, 27, 29, 31, 33, 36, 37, 60, and 62 ; to 
the Bureau of Education for figures 51 and 59 ; and to the 
Bureau of Agriculture for figure 53. 

Augustus P. West. 
William H. Brown, 



PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, SEED OILS, AND 
ESSENTIAL OILS 

By Augustus P. West and William H. Brown 

INTRODUCTION 

The Philippine forests contain a large number of trees and 
other plants which produce seed oils, essential oils, resins, and 

• gums. A number of such forest products are used locally, while 
a few enter into the foreign commerce of the Islands. The 
present bulletin aims to present a somewhat popular account of 
these various products. 

A short account of agricultural, oil-yielding plants has been 
included for the sake of completeness. This has seemed the 
more advisable as there are only a few of them. The most 
important oil-producing plants, which can be regarded as strictly 
agricultural and never wild, are the coconut palm and peanut. 
There are in the Philippines a number of cultivated medicinal 
plants which contain oils. They are, however, for the most part 
unimportant, and oil is not extracted from them in the Arch- 

• ipelago. 

Some of the resinous products and seed oils from Philippine 
forests are used extensively in the preparation of paints and 
varnishes, while others are employed for medicinal purposes, 
illumination, the manufacture of soaps, etc. A number of the 
resins, which occur most abundantly, are of comparatively little 

• value at the present time, but some of these would seem to have 
promising possibilities. 

A few of the Philippine essential oils (the odoriferous, volatile 
oils obtained from vegetable sources) are used commercially in 
the preparation of perfumes ; and others would be valuable com- 
mercially, if this industry were properly developed. Acacia far- 
nesiana (aroma) is a very common species in grasslands and 
open places in the Philippines. In France this shrub is grown 
extensively for the perfume obtained from its flowers, known 
as cassie flowers. There is no record of such a utilization in 
the Philippines. 

The chief difficulty encountered in the collection of products 
from Philippine forest trees is that the forests usually contain a 



14 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

large number of species, so that a given species, although of wide 
distribution, may occur only in small numbers in a limited area. 
Many of the Philippine oil-producing plants grow well under 
cultivation, and the greatest development of oil industries from 
such plants will be dependent on their being grown in plantations 
by private individuals or in reforestation projects. A beginning 
has already been made in this direction, and in the case of 
Canangiwm odoratum (ilang-ilang) the oil is distilled largely 
from flowers grown under cultivation. Aleurites moluccana, 
the source of lumbang oil, is fairly common in some regions, and 
the oil, which is extracted commercially, is largely from wild 
trees. This species and also Aleurites trisperma, the source of 
bagilumbang oil, grow rapidly in plantations, and the trees fruit 
in a few years. These species are very promising for planta- 
tion and reforestation projects, and great numbers have already 
been planted. It can, therefore, be safely predicted that the 
future supply of lumbang and bagilumbang oils will be mostly 
from planted trees. As these oils are valuable, there are bright 
prospects for the development of a considerable industry in the 
handling of them. Several other oil-producing species which 
have been tried in limited quantities in plantations give promise 
of doing well. Among them may be mentioned Pongamia inn- 
nata, Sterculia foetida, Terminalia catappa, and Sindora supa. 
Canarium luzonicum, the source of Manila elemi, also apparently 
does well in plantations. It would thus seem that the Manila 
elemi industry can best be developed from planted trees. This 
is probably likewise true of Canarium villosum and Agathis alba, 
although the latter species occurs in considerable abundance. 

While most of the oil plants and some of the resinous ones 
grow for the most part as scattered individuals, this is not true 
of all the resin-producing trees. Pinus insularis grows in pure 
stands of considerable extent in the mountain regions of central 
Luzon, and Pinus merkusii in Mindoro. Most of the species of the 
family Dipterocarpaceae are large and dominant trees and grow 
in such numbers that immense quantities of resin could be pro- 
duced. Unfortunately there is comparatively little market for 
these resins, although balau, from Dipterocarpus vernicifluus, 
D. grandiflorus, and other species of Dipterocarpus, and Anisop- 
tera thurifera, appears to be very promising as a source of 
varnish resin and could be obtained in very large quantities. 
According to Foxworthy,* the species of Dipterocarpus make up 

* Foxworthy, F. W., Philippine Dipterocarpaceae, II. Philippine Journal 
of Science, Section C, Volume 13 (1918), page 163. 



INTRODUCTION 15 

20 per cent of the volume of the commercial forests of the 
Philippines. 

Among cultivated species there are several which seem to 
offer promising prospects for the establishment of considerable 
industries. Elaeis guineensis (oil palm), which is used in the 
Philippines only for ornamental purposes, grows very well and 
is apparently not attacked by insects or fungi. In Africa this 
plant is grown very extensively for the oil derived from the 
seeds. Large plantations are "also being started in Sumatra. 
Peanuts are raised in considerable quantities, but very little 
oil is extracted. In many countries, peanut oil is a commercial 

•product of great importance. Sesame, which is grown in India 
and other countries on a huge scale for the production of ses- 
ame oil, grows well in the Philippines, but is cultivated only to 
a limited extent, and the oil is extracted merely for local pur- 
poses. Palm, peanut, and sesame oils are used extensively for 
edible purposes and for the manufacture of soap. Achras sapota 
(chico) is cultivated in the Philippines for its edible fruit. This 
species is grown extensively in Mexico for the production of 
gum chicle, the principal material employed in the manufacture 
of chewing-gum. 

From the above discussion of oils, resins, and gums, it will 
be seen that there are promising prospects for the development 

tof industries which already exist and for the establishment of 
a number of new ones. 



RESINS 

Resins and gums are products obtained from the exudations 
of plants. The products may exude spontaneously, but are more 
often secured by making incisions in the bark or trunk. It 
is somewhat difficult to draw a sharp distinction between gums 
and resins, as there are a number of plant exudations known as 
oleoresins, balsams and gum resins which have properties in- 
termediate between those of true gums and resins. In general, 
plant products of this nature contain resins, gums, volatile oils, 
and aromatic acids. Allen * gives a very satisfactory discussion 
of resins and the methods used in analyzing them. 

Resins are solid or semi-solid and are usually insoluble in 
water, but soluble in alcohol, ether, and volatile oils. They are 
formed usually by the spontaneous evaporation of resinous 
juices which exude naturally from the trunks of trees or when 
the trunks are cut. Frequently resins may be extracted from 
various parts of plants by solvents such as alcohol and ether. 
They are also found as minerals (mineral resin) which are, no 
doubt, products of extinct vegetation. Resins from different 
sources frequently show great differences in their chemical com- 
position and properties. Commercially, Manila copal, which is 
used in making varnishes, is the most important Philippine resin. ' 

Oleoresins are the plant exudations consisting of resins dis- 
solved in volatile essential oils. Manila elemi, employed in var- 
nish making, and turpentine are examples of this class of sub- 
stances occurring in the Philippines. 

Gum resins are plant exudations, like gamboge, which consist 
of a mixture of resin and gum. Gamboge of an inferior quality 
can be obtained in the Philippines from Garcinia venulosa and 
probably from other species of Garcinia. 

Certain of the dipterocarp resins can be collected in large 
quantities and appear to offer commercial possibilities as ma- 
terials for the manufacture of varnishes. 

Family PINACEAE 

Genus AGATHIS 

AGATHIS ALBA (Lam.) Foxw. (Figs. 2-4). Almaciga. 

Local names: Adidngau (Camarines) ; alinsago (Benguet) ; almaciga 

(Mindoro, Lepanto, Bataan, Tayabas, Benguet, Zambales, Palawan, Cama- 

* Allen, Commercial organic analysis. Volume 4 (1911), page 1. 
16 



RESINS 



17 




• FIGURE 2. AGATHIS ALBA (ALMACIGA), THE SOURCE OF MANILA COPAL. X*. 

168837 2 



18 



PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 



rines, Negros) ; almaciga babae (Bataan) ; aningd (Isabela) ; aningdt (Ca- 
layan Island); dnteng (Nueva Ecija) ; bacjtik, baltik (Palawan); bidyo 
(Bisaya) ; bididngan (Negros Occidental) ; bunsog (Benguet) ; dadidngau 
(Sorsogon, Polillo, Tayabas, Negros); dadungoi (Albay, Sorsogon) ; gala- 
gdla (Bataan, Palawan) ; ladidiTgau (Camarines, Sorsogon, Tayabas) ; 
makdu (Misamis) ; pino (Samar) ; sdlong (Cagayan, Negros); titau 
(Abra) ; iili (Zambales). 

ALMACIGA OR MANILA COPAL 

The chief value of Agathis alba is in the resin (almaciga or 
Manila copal) which it yields. Locally this is employed as 
incense in religious ceremonies, for torches, starting fires, caulk- 
ing boats, as a smudge for mosquitoes, etc. It is exported in 
considerable quantities, and used chiefly in the manufacture of 
high-grade varnish, but also in other processes, as in making 
patent leather and sealing wax. Almaciga is suitable, according 
to Richmond,* for the manufacture of cheap soaps and paper 
size. Aqueous solutions of the alkaline resinates are precipi- 
tated by solutions of all other metallic salts, e. g., aluminum 
sulphate, in the form of an insoluble resinate, which could be 
used in paper manufacturing to render the paper non-bibulous. 
The exports of almaciga from the Philippines from 1914 to 1918 
are given in Table 1. 

Table 1. — Amount and value of Manila copal exported from the Philippines 

from ion to 1918. 



Year. 


Amount. 


Value. 


1914 _ . . . 


Kilograms. 

1,112,787 

1,304,975 

1, 143, 938 

593, 560 

507, 116 


Pesos. 
225,078 
206, 446 
211,593 

188,940 
138.821 


1915 


1916 


1917- 


1918 





Agathis alba belongs to the pine family and to the same genus 
as the "kauri pine" (Agathis robusta) of New Zealand. The 
latter yields a resin very similar to almaciga and one which 
has long been important in the industries. 

Manila copal is a member of the class of substances known as 
copals. These substances are obtained as resinous exudations 
from various trees or as fossil (mineral) resin and are used 
principally for manufacturing varnishes. According to Hydeif 



* Richmond, G. F., Manila copal. Philippine Journal of Science, Section 
A, Volume 5 (1910), pages 177 to 201. 

t Hyde, F. S., Solvents, oils, gums, waxes and allied substances (1913), 
page 35. 



RESINS 



19 




FIGURE 3. TRUNK OF AGATHIS ALBA (ALMaCIGA) , WITH SCARS FROM WHICH 
MANILA COPAL IS EXUDING. 



20 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

True copals are hard, lustrous, yellow, brown, or nearly white, and 
more or less insoluble in the usual solvents, but are rendered soluble by 
melting before making into varnish. 

The copals are resins which contain those very permanent 
substances known as resenes. 
Bottler and Sabin * state that : 

* * * they contain, moreover, ethereal oils, which are driven off by 
melting or distillation, a bitter principle, and coloring-matter. Zanzibar 
and Cameroon copals consist mainly of resin acids and resenes; * * * 
Manila is composed mostly of resin acids; but it contains more resene (12 
per cent) than does Zanzibar (6 per cent). * * * 

Bottler and Sabin f further say : ^ 

For making spirit copal varnishes only such copals can be used as will 
readily dissolve to a clear solution, free from slimy or stringy qualities. 
Manila and Borneo copals are used, the soft Angola and the newer Sierra 
Leone. 

These varnishes may be made by such formulas as the following: 

Parts. 

(a) Manila copal 16 

Venice turpentine 4 to 5 

Alcohol (95 per cent) 30 

The resin of Agathis alba is found in the bark, and oozes out 
whenever the latter is cut (surface resin). Occasionally lumps 
of resin are found in the forks of branches, and large masses, 
the so-called fossil (mineral) resins, are found in the ground. < 
These deposits are located by sounding the ground with sharp- 
pointed sticks. Such resin is often discovered in places where 
large trees have formerly stood, but which have long since died 
and decayed, leaving large masses of resin in the ground. 

According to Richmond, $ more than 50 per cent of the Manila 
copal exported from the Philippines is collected in the Davao ' 
district of Mindanao, and probably 90 per cent of the resin pro- 
duced in that region is obtained by blazing living trees. The 
best results are secured by removing, from different sides of 
trees, strips of bark about one meter in length and 20 to 30 
centimeters wide, thus providing clean surfaces on which the 
resin is deposited as it oozes from the cut end of the bark. The 
resin is also obtained by means of a wedge-shaped incision in 
the tree trunk. This method however does not provide a clean 

* Bottler, M. and Sabin, A. H., German and American varnish making 
(1912), page 13. 

t Bottler, M. and Sabin, A. H., German and American varnish making 
(1912), page 131. 

t Richmond, G. F., Manila copal. Philippine Journal of Science, Section 
A, Volume 5 (1910), pages 177 to 201. 



RESINS 



21 




FIGURE 4. TRUNK OF AGATHIS ALBA (ALMACIGA), THE SOURCE OF MANILA COPAL. 



22 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

c 

surface, and the resulting resin is generally mixed with chips 
of bark. 

When the resin first exudes from the tree, it appears as almost 
colorless tears, the outer surfaces of which soon harden. As 
exudation continues, the fresh resin instead of flowing out over 
the first portion produced appears to force the latter outward by 
being deposited beneath it. The outer surfaces are thus always 
hard and friable and the inner portion hardens very slowly. 
About two weeks are required to produce solid pieces of market- 
able size. 

The Manila copal which is exported from the Philippines 
directly to the United States is cleaned, sorted, and graded in ' 
Manila. Particular attention is paid to cleanliness, color, and 
size. Manila copal is sometimes adulterated with other resins, 
particularly dipterocarp resins; the latter, however, are very 
readily distinguished from Manila copal. As the resin is col- 
lected largely by non-Christian tribes, the sorters in Manila 
frequently encounter considerable admixtures of other resins, 
and as the consumers have to depend largely on Philippine 
sorters, it is not surprising that the securing of a uniform quality 
of resin is a matter of some difficulty. 

ANALYSIS OF MANILA COPAL 

Almaciga has been the subject of a number of investigations ( 
by the Bureau of Science.* 

Richmond examined recent surface and fossil (mineral) resin 
to ascertain the probable composition and character of these 
substances. The acid value was determined by dissolving ap- 
proximately one gram of powdered resin in 50 cubic centimeters 
of absolute alcohol and titrating with a half-normal solution i 
of alcoholic potassium hydroxide, using phenolphthalein as an 
indicator. A gram of surface resin required approximately 
128 milligrams of potash for neutralization, while a gram of 
mineral resin required about 110. 

The saponification value was determined in the following 
manner: — About one gram of resin was dissolved in 50 cubic 
centimeters of absolute alcohol. Twenty-five cubic centimeters 

* Foxworthy, F. W., The almaciga tree: Agathis alba (Lam.), Philippine 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 5 (1910), pages 173 to 175. 

Richmond, G. F., Manila copal. Philippine Journal of Science, Section 
A, Volume 5 (1910), pages 177 to 201. 

Brooks, B. T., The destructive distillation of Manila copal. Philippine ' 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 5 (1910), pages 203 to 217. 

Brooks, B. T., The oxidation of Manila copal by the air. Philippine 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 5 (1910), pages 219 to 227. 



• 



RESINS 23 

of half -normal alcoholic potash were then added and the mixture 
heated on a steam bath (refluxed) for an hour. The excess of 
potassium hydroxide was titrated with a half-normal alcoholic 
solution of hydrogen chloride. A gram of surface resin required 
approximately 177 milligrams of potassium hydroxide for neu- 
tralization, while a gram of fossil resin took about 150 milli- 
grams. The acid and saponification values of various samples 
of resin were determined. The results showed that darker speci- 
mens of resin gave higher acid and saponification values than 
did lighter-colored ones. 

Samples of surface resin were distilled with steam, but only 
traces of volatile oil were obtained. Fossil resin which was 
finely pulverized yielded a larger proportion of volatile oil. 
When steam-distilled in the presence of an alkali, 500 grams 
of surface resin gave 6.5 grams of oil, while an equal quantity 
of fossil resin gave 40 grams of oil. The oil obtained by steam 
distillation when dried over solid potassium hydroxide had a 
pale-lemon color and pleasant odor. This was fractionally dis- 
tilled. The main fraction boiled between 155° and 165°. By 
treating with hydrochloric acid gas this fraction was converted 
into a hydrochloride which crystallized from alcohol and melted 
at 124°. This substance was identified as pinene hydrochloride. 

A method of analysis devised by Richmond showed that one 
hundred parts of crude resin gave the following results : 

Parts. 

Insoluble in absolute alcohol .5 

Soluble in alcoholic potash 40.0 

Insoluble in alcoholic potash 41.5 

Neutral oil soluble in alcohol and volatile with steam.. 6.0 
Neutral resin partially soluble in alcohol and non- 
volatile 'Adth steam 10.0 

Water, etc., undetermined 2.0 

These results confirm the conclusion of Tschirch that Manila 
copal consists mainly of amorphous free resin acids, and contains 
a neutral resin indifferent to alkalies, and a volatile oil. Rich- 
mond extracted the resin acids from Manila copal by using a 
modification of Tschirch's method. An ether extract of Manila 
copal was treated with 5 per cent ammonium carbonate solution 
for several days, after which the mixture was acidified. The 
resin acids were precipitated as an amorphous powder. When 
this precipitate was dissolved in dilute alcohol and crystallized, 
white crystals melting at 186° were obtained. Analysis showed 
that these crystals had the molecular formula Ci„H,..0. and that 
the resin acid was monobasic. 



24 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

f 

MANILA COPAL AS AN INGREDIENT OF VARNISHES. 

As previously stated, Manila copal is used principally as an 
ingredient of varnishes. Spirit varnishes are solutions of resin 
in a volatile solvent such as turpentine, benzene, alcohol or some 
other solvent. Plain oil varnishes consist of only linseed oil or 
some other drying oil. The oleoresinous varnishes contain all 
the ingredients of both spirit and plain oil varnishes, and have 
properties common to both. The manufacture of oleoresinous 
varnishes consists essentially in mixing resin, turpentine, and 
a drying oil, such as linseed oil, in the proper proportions. 
Usually resins do not dissolve readily in drying oils unless the 
mixture is heated somewhat, and even then the resin frequently * 
separates upon cooling. It is therefore customary to heat both 
the oil and resin before and after mixing. Richmond showed 
that although Manila copal loses weight when heated, the melted 
resin differs from the raw resin only in the amount and nature 
of unsaponifiable matter, that is, in the free amorphous acids. 
He concluded that the resin which enters into varnish manufac- 
ture consists essentially of free acids of the same composition 
as the free acids in the original copal, and that there is no 
particular reason for heating the resin to a high temperature 
either before or after mixing. He found that oleic, palmitic^ 
and linolic acids dissolve the resin acids of Manila copal at 
moderate temperature. ' 

A quantity of the mixed fatty acids of linseed oil was prepared and 
added in varying proportions to raw^ linseed oil, depending upon the 
quantity of unmelted i-esin it w^as desired to dissolve, and it was found 
that raw or boiled linseed oil, containing the free, mixed, fatty acids of 
linseed oil in the proportions of 10 to 30 per cent calculated as oleic acid, 
formed homogeneous solutions with raw or fused Manila copal when the < 
latter is added in the proportion of 10 to 30 gallon varnishes and heated 
for a time at a maximum of 200°. When the turpentine was added before 
the oil, the boiling point of turpentine, 155° to 165°, was sufficiently high 
to effect complete solution with the exception of such foreign matter as 
may be present in the resin. The subsequent addition of turpentine to the 
oil and resin did not produce any cloudiness. 

Varnish prepared as described above was used for varnishing 
native hardwood. The varnish film remained a year without 
showing any appreciable loss of luster. 

Richmond concluded that : 

The changes which take place during the cooking of varnish are largely 
changes in the oil rather than the resin, i. e., it is possible so to treat 
linseed oil, either by boiling or by adding to it linseed-oil acids previous 
to its addition to the fused resin, that it will form a clear, homogeneous 
mixture with the latter which will remain so upon cooling, without sub- 
sequent heating to temperatures greater than 150° to 200°. 



RESINS 25 

Richmond also prepared an oleoresinous varnish entirely from 
Philippine raw materials, consisting of lumbang oil, Manila copal, 
and turpentine. The lumbang was used in place of linseed as 
a drying oil. The turpentine was obtained by distilling the resin 
of the Benguet pine. Red narra wood, which had received two 
coats of this varnish, remained exposed for over a year without 
any appreciable loss of luster. 

DISTILLATION OF MANILA COPAL 

Brooks * carried out a number of experiments on the distil- 
lation of Manila copal. His results verified the observations 
, of other experimenters that the distillation takes place in two 
stages. The first stage is characterized by considerable frothing. 
As the temperature rises slowly to about 330° the mass becomes 
fluid and boils gently. The loss in weight at this stage is about 
14 per cent of the original sample. At about 340° the resin 
oil distils over in large quantities. The weight of oil obtained 
from 1,500 grams of resin was 94 grams. The fraction boiling 
between 150° and 178° gave 24 grams of oil, and contained 
limonene, pinene, terpineol, iso-borneol and /?-pinene. 

Table 2. — Substances given off by Manila copal during the first 
stage of the decomposition, up to 330° . 

Substances. Per cent, 

• Carbon dioxide 3.2 

Water 2.4 

Formic acid and acetic acid each... 0.5 

Formaldehyde, acetyl formaldehyde, furfuraldehyde, 

methyl alcohol, and acetone, approximately 0.2 

Gaseous hydrocarbons 0.2 

Pinene, limonene, dipentene, ^-pinene, and camphene, 

» variable 1.5-11.2 

Resin oil, variable, usually from 3.0-6.0 

Brooks also analyzed the gases given off during the first stage 
of the distillation of Manila copal and ascertained the quantity 
of carbon dioxide, unsaturated hydrocarbons, and saturated hy- 
drocarbons. The principal products obtained by distilling Ma- 
nila copal up to a temperature of 330° are given in Table 2. 
The solubility of Manila copal in various solvents was deter- 
mined, with the results given in Table 3, These results are, 
however, only approximate, as different pieces vary somewhat in 
solubility, 

• * Brooks, B. T., Destructive distillation of Manila copal. Philippine 
Journal of Science, Section A, volume 5 (1910), page 203, 



26 



PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 



Table 3. — Per cent of substance dissolved from 10 grayns of resin by 100 
cubic centimeters of solvent. 



Solvent. 



Ethyl alcohol 
Amyl alcohol 

Ether 

LigToin 

Benzene 

Turpentine . 



Per cent. 



Temper- 
ature 
used to 
expel 
solvent. 



°C 

130 

150-155 

120 

130 

135-140 

170-175 



OXIDATION OF MANILA COPAL 

The absorption of oxygen from the air appears to be a prop- 
erty common to all complex resin acids. Brooks * investigated 
the oxidation of Manila copal by air and summarized his re- 
sults as follows: 

1. Manila copal rapidly absorbs oxygen from the air. The oxidation 
is accompanied by the formation of organic peroxides, an increase in the 
Koettstorfer number, and evolution of small quantities of carbon dioxide, 
formaldehyde, formic acid, and hydrogen peroxide. 

2. The resin acids of Manila copal, when separated from the terpenes 
occurring in the natural resin, undergo oxidation by the air. ' 

3. The evolution of carbon dioxide from Manila copal and colophony is 
probably due to the formation of organic peroxides and their subsequent 
decomposition. 

4. The increase in the Koettstorfer number obtained by prolonged di- 
gestion with alcoholic potassium hydroxide is not due to oxidation during 
the course of the experiment, but is probably caused, at least in part, by 
the breaking down of lactones and organic peroxides. Samples which have ( 
been exposed to the air give up carbon dioxide and formic acid to the 
alkaline solution in the Koettstorfer determination and cause the recovered 
resin to show lower Koettstorfer numbers than the initial values. 

5. Formaldehyde has heretofore not been noted among the products of 
the oxidation of organic substances by the air. I have found it among 
the products of the atmospheric oxidation of Manila copal. 

6. The oxidation of Manila copal by the air is accelerated by sunlight. 

Ingle t examined Manila copal to ascertain the effect of ex- 
posing it to the air. The material was finely ground and ex- 

* Brooks, B. T., Oxidation of Manila copal by the air. Philippine Journal 
of Science, Section A, Volume 5 (1910), page 219. 

t Ingle, H., Some notes on gum resins. Journal of the Society of , 
Chemical Industry, Volume 31 (1912), page 272. 



RESINS ' 27 

posed to light and air. At intervals of 78 days, 13 months, and 
2 years, the copal was weighed and the acid and iodine values 
determined. His results showed that the acid value was prac- 
tically unchanged while the iodine value decreased. He also 
determined the solubility of Manila copal in various solvents, 
and suggested a method for estimating Manila copal in the 
presence of other resins. He believed that Manila copal, which 
is cheaper than kauri resin, could be used in place of the latter 
in certain dental-mould preparations. 

DESCRIPTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF AGATHIS ALBA 

Agathis alba is a large tree reaching a height of 50 to 60 
meters and a diameter, at breast height, of more than 2 meters ; 
and with a clear length of trunk of 30 meters or more. The 
bark is 10 to 15 millimeters in thickness, brittle, and light 
greenish to brownish gray in color. It is shed in scroll-shaped 
patterns and is thickly set with corky pustules. The inner 
bark is brown, streaked with red and grading into a cream color 
near the sapwood. The leaves are simple, opposite or nearly so, 
leathery in texture, 3 to 9.5 centimeters long, and 1 to 2,5 centi- 
meters wide. 

The wood is moderately hard, flexible, and tough, though not 
resilient. The heartwood is pale yellow, sometimes with a faint 
pinkish or brownish tinge, generally turning to an even, very 
pale brown in drying. 

This species was first described at length by Rumphius, who 
called it Dammara alba, which is the Latin form of the Malay 
common name, dammar puti. The same name was used by 
Lamarck in 1786, but the genus has since come to be known 
as Agathis, a name which is retained in the Vienna Code. 

Agathis alba is found growing in considerable numbers in 
forests at altitudes of from 200 to 2,000 meters, but in the Phil- 
ippines it usually attains its best development on well-drained 
slopes at from 600 to 1,500 meters elevation. The tree is very 
common in the Philippines and exists on mountain slopes 
throughout the Archipelago. It has been reported from the 
following regions: Cagayan, Isabela, Lepanto, Benguet, Abra, 
Zambales, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Rizal, Tayabas, Polillo, Min- 
doro, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, Calayan Island, Sibuyan, 
Negros, Samar, Palawan, Misamis, Davao, and Zamboanga. 
Agathis alba also occurs in Cochin China, the Malay Peninsula, 
Sumatra, Java, Celebes, the Moluccas, and Borneo. 



28 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

( 

Genus PIN US 

PIN US INSULARIS Endl. (Figs. 5-7). Saleng * or Benguet PINE. 

Local names: Aldl (Zambales) ; balibo, booboo, bulbul, ol-ol, sdung 

(Benguet) ; parua (Iloko) ; sdleng (Bontoc, Lepanto, Abra, Nueva Ecija, 
Ilocos Norte and Sur). 

TURPENTINE 

Two species of pines are natives of the Philippines, one of 
which, Pinus insularis, was used in Spanish times as a commer- 
cial source of turpentine. Richmond f says that turpentine 
collected from this tree has an appearance and consistency- 
somewhat like that of crystallized honey and possesses a pleasant 
odor; while Brooks $, after an investigation, states that it is 
practically identical with that produced in America. 

Brooks measured the flow from a number of trees. Concern- 
ing the results he writes § : 

On March 13, fourteen trees situated in the forest adjoining the claim 
of the Headwaters Mining Company were boxed. The trees were selected 
at random and included several trees of the variety known to lumbermen 
and turpentine collectors as "scrub pine." Six hours later thirteen of the 
trees showed an abundant flow of resin, while one was hard and did not 
flow. The collected resin weighed 1,761.5 grams. 

On March 14, thirty trees were boxed in another locality about 2 miles 
distant from Baguio. They were selected with the idea of including both 
healthy and unhealthy looking trees and some which had been damaged 
by ground fires. On the following day these trees were again visited and 
all but three, which were hard and did not flow, were still running slowly. 
The collected resin weighed 4,400 grams. 

Method of boxing. — The boxes were cut about 30 to 40 centimeters wide, 
12 to 18 centimeters deep, and 6 to 8 centimeters from front to back, 
varying with the size of the trees. They were made by inexperienced 
laborers and were so badly split and bruised that much of the fresh resin 
was lost, hence the yields obtained do not accurately represent the total 
flow of resin. 

One of the best flowing trees had a diameter of about 85 centimeters 
and produced 857 grams of resin in thirty-two hours, although a portion 
was lost by overflowing the box. 

* The words sdlong, sdleng, sdhing and sding, sdong or sdung, which 
occur so constantly as local names of trees of the Pine, Pili, and Lauan 
families (Pinaceae, Burseraceae, and Dipterocarpaceae) , are all various 
dialectic forms of one word having the general meaning of "resin." 

t Richmond, G. F., Philippine turpentine. Philippine Journal of Science, 
Section A, Volume 4 (1909), pages 231 to 232. 

J Brooks, B. T., The oleoresin of Pinus insularis Endl. Philippine 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 5 (1910), pages 229 to 231. 

§ Richmond, G. F., Philippine turpentine. Philippine Journal of Science, 
Section A, Volume 4 (1909), page 231. 



RESINS 



29 




FIGURE 5. FOREST OF PINUS INSULARIS (BEN6UET PINE) IN BENGUET MOUNTAINS. 



30 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

These samples being taken during the dry season probably represent 
a smaller yield than would be obtained during the rainy season when the 
trees have more life and the loss by evaporation is less. 

The cup and gutter system of collection would also give large yields by 
minimizing the loss. 

Richmond * investigated the turpentine obtained from Pinus 
insularis and found that exhaustive distillation of the resin gave 
412.2 grams (23.4 per cent) of oil of turpentine which was 
water-white in color, and after drying over calcium chloride gave 

the following results: Specific gravity, gQo =0.8593; refractive 

30° 30° 

index, N -^ =1.4656; optical rotation, A ^ = + 26.5. Ninety- . 

six per cent distilled between 154° and 165.5°. 

The residue from the steam distillation amounted to 76.6 
per cent of the original resin and was freed from approximately 
15 grams of foreign material by hot filtration. It consisted of 
pine colophony of a clear, pale-amber color. 

Brooks t collected samples of the oleoresin from different 
trees and steam-distilled them, after which he determined the 
optical rotations. The values he obtained at 30° (+13.15° to 
+27.48°) were not very uniform, but the differences were not 
as large as those noted by Herty in the case of American tur- 
pentine. 

The constants and chemical properties of the turpentine 
obtained from Pinus insularis indicate that the oil consists 
principally of pinene. Several derivatives of pinene, such as 
pinene nitrosyl chloride, were prepared from the turpentine. 
Brooks concluded that the turpentine and colophony from Pinus 
iiisularis are practically identical with those produced in 
America. 

Pinus insularis reaches a height of 40 meters and a diameter 
of 140 centimeters. The bole is straight and clear, the crown 
narrow, with the lateral branches weakly developed. The bark 
is 10 to 25 millimeters in thickness, yellow or reddish brown 
in color, and broken in sections by vertical and horizontal cracks. 
The leaves are grouped in bunches of three, or sometimes two, 
and are 8 to 30 centimeters in length. The wood is moderately 
hard and heavy, resembling the yellow pine of the United States. 

* Richmond, G. F., Philippine turpentine. Philippine Journal of Science, 
Section A, Volume 4 (1909), page 231. 

t Brooks, B. T., The oleoresin of Pinus insularis Endl. Philippine ( 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 5 (1910), page 229. 



RESINS 



31 




» ti; 



JVitan deL 

FIGURE 6. PINUS INSULARIS (BENGUET PINE), A SOURCE OF TURPENTINE. 



32 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 



The sapwood is white; the heartwood white and reddish brown 
with alternate light and dark rings, and very resinous. It is 
used locally for house construction, mining props, etc. 

This species is found in the highlands of central and northern 
Luzon at altitudes varying from 500 to 2,500 meters, but is best 
developed at altitudes ranging from 900 to 1,500 meters. The 
stands vary in density from those composed of scattered indiv- 
iduals to nearly closed patches. The ground in a pine area is 
usually covered with grass. In the ravines, broad-leaved trees 
occur and there is considerable evidence to show that nearly 
the whole area now occupied by the pines was formerly covered 
by broad-leaved trees, the pines being confined to steeper and , 
dryer situations, where the other trees did not flourish. Through 
the activities of man in past centuries, the broad-leaved trees 
have been cleared off", and repeated fires have prevented their 
reproduction. The result of successive fires is usually to leave 
the lands in possession of grasses. The pines are less susceptible 
to fire than are the broad-leaved trees and consequently the 
former occur over wide areas. If fires were kept out, the pine, 
in the absence of competition with the broad-leaved trees, would 
quickly occupy the entire area, as its reproduction is abundant 
and rapid. The pines would then gradually be replaced by 
broad-leaved trees, as these will seed under the pines and cast 
such a dense shade as to prevent the growth of pine seedlings. , 

Measurements show a volume of 74 cubic meters per hectare 
(equivalent to about 7,400 board feet per acre) of pine trees 
which have a diameter of 25 or more centimeters. 

PINUS MERKUSII Jungh. (Fig. 8). Tapulau or Mindoro Pine. 

Local names: Agu-u (Mindoro); salit, tapulau (Zambales). 

' c 

TURPENTINE 

This species has not been investigated chemically, but its 
products are probably similar to those of Pinus insularis. The 
wood is apparently identical with the latter species, but seems 
on the average to be even more resinous. 

Pinus merkusii is a tree reaching a diameter of about 90 cen- 
timeters. The chief difference between this species and Pinus 
insularis is that the needles occur in groups of two rather than 
three. 

This species is found in Zambales and northwestern Mindoro, 
occurring in the latter region in pure stands. In Zambales, both 
Pinus 7nerkusii and Pinus insularis are found at altitudes of , 
only one or two hundred meters. 



RESINS 



33 





FIGURE 7. TRUNK OF PINUS INSULARIS (BENGUET PINE). 

168837 3 



34 



PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 




FIGURE S. PINUS MERKUSII (MINDORO PINE), A SOURCE OF TURPENTINE. Xj. 



RESINS 



35 




FIGURE 9. SINDORA INERMIS (KAYU-GaLU), THE SOURCE OF KAYU-GALU OIL. Xj. 



36 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

FAMILY LEGUMINOSAE 

Genus SIN DORA 

SIN DORA INERMIS Merr. (Fig. 9). Kayu-GALU. 

Local names: Kayu-gdhi (Cotabato) ; parind (Albay) ; sinsi'id (Jolo, 
Manukmangka Island, Sibutu Island). 

KAYU-GALU OIL 

The trunk of this species yields a resinous oil known as kayu- 
galu oil. It has a pleasant, persistent odor and should be useful 
as a perfume oil. Locally it serves much the same purposes 
as the oil of supa from Sindora supa. It has been exported in 
small quantities to Singapore by Chinese traders in Zamboanga. * 

Si7idora inermis is a tree reaching a height of about 30 meters 
and a diameter of about 75 centimeters. The leaves are alter- 
nate and pinnate with four to eight leaflets, which are opposite, 
leathery, smooth, somewhat rounded at the base, usually pointed 
at the tip, and from 5 to 10 centimeters in length. The flowers 
are borne on compound, hairy inflorescences. The fruit is flat- 
tened, somewhat inequilateral, about 7 centimeters long, and 5 
centimeters wide. Sindora inermis is distinguished from Sin- 
dora supa by the fact that the fruit of Sindora inermis is not 
armed with spines as is the case with that of Sindora supa. 

This species is distributed from southern Luzon to Mindanao 
and Jolo. ' 

SINDORA SUPA Merr. (Fig. 10). Supa. 

Local names: Mandpo, yakdl-dildu, baldyong (Tayabas) ; supa (Taya- 
bas, Camarines, Albay, Zamboanga). 

SUPA OIL 

Oil of supa is obtained from this tree by making a cavity in* 
the trunk. Clover * says that a freshly cut tree will yield about 
10 liters of oil. The oil is non-drying, limpid, light yellow, 
homogeneous, with a slight fluorescence, possesses a pleasant 
aromatic odor, and does not become rancid. This oil is highly 
prized by the Filipinos for illuminating purposes and for the 
treatment of skin diseases. The oil of supa can be utilized in 
making varnishes, paints, transparent paper, and for the adul- 
teration of other oils. 

Clover * investigated the chemical properties of the oil of supa 

* Clover, A. M., Philippine wood oils. Philippine Journal of Science, 
Section A, Volume 1 (1906), page 191. c 



RESINS 



37 







FIGURE 10. SINDORA SUPA (SUPa), THE SOURCE OF OIL OF SUPa. 



38 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

( 

and obtained the following results: Specific gravity ^^ =0.9202. 

Optical rotation — 31" .3 (10 centimeters, 30°). When cooled 
below 20', white crystals of a hydrocarbon were obtained. This 
hydrocarbon is present to the extent of a few per cent. The oil 
is soluble in ordinary organic solvents except alcohol. When ex- 
posed to the air it absorbs oxygen slowly and finally hardens. 
When steam-distilled, a colorless oil is obtained. The absence 
of alcoholic substances was proved by the fact that the oil is not 
acted upon by sodium or phosphorous pentoxide in benzol. When 
an acetic acid solution of the steam distillate was treated with 
hydrochloric acid gas, cadinene hydrochloride was obtained. The 
oil is therefore probably a mixture of sesquiterpenes. The non- 
volatile portion of the oil which remains after distillation was 
recrystallized from alcohol. Its saponification number was found 
to be 64, which shows that the saponifiable matter is negligible. 

Sindora supa is a tree reaching a height of 20 to 30 meters 
and, in exceptional cases, a diameter of 150 to 180 centimeters. 
The bole is straight, regular and without buttresses. The bark 
is 7 to 10 millimeters thick, brown to nearly black in color, and 
sheds in large scales. When the bark is freshly shed it exposes 
pink-colored patches. The leaves are alternate and simply com- 
pound, usually with three pairs of leaflets. These are smooth, 
leathery in texture, from 3.5 to 9 centimeters long, and from 
2.5 to 5 centimeters wide. The fruit is a pod covered with 
straight, stiff spines on the ends of which drops of sticky oil 
accumulate. 

The wood is hard and heavy. The heartwood is yellow or 
pinkish when fresh, gradually turning to a dark-bronze color 
with age. This wood was used formerly in general construction 
for beams, joists, rafters, etc., and in bridge, wharf, and ship 
building. It is now too highly prized for interior finish, fur- 
niture, and cabinet work, and especially fiooring, to be put to 
the former uses. It is an excellent wood for fine turned and 
shaped tool handles, rulers and other desk supplies. 

This species is intolerant of shade, occurs on limestone ridges, 
and appears to be confined to a limited portion of those regions 
without a distinct dry season. 

Family BURSERACEAE 

Genus CANARIUM 

CANARIUM LU20NICUM (Bl.) A. Gray. (Figs. 11, 12). PiLI. 

Local names: Alangki (Union); dnteng (Cagayan, Abra, Isabela) ; ba- 

koog (Ilocos Sur) ; buldii (Pangasinan) ; vialapili (Camarines) ; pagsai- 



RESINS 



39 




FIGURE 11. CANARIUM LUZONICUM (PtLI), THE SOURCE OF MANILA ELEMI. XL 



40 



PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 



iigin or pagsahingin (Rizal, Bataan) ; palsahingin (Laguna, Bataan) ; pili 
(Tayabas, Masbate, Laguna, Mindoro, Rizal, Marinduque, Tarlac, Bataan, 
Albay, Sorsogon) ; pisa (Cavite) ; sdhing (Bataan); tugtugin (Tayabas). 

MANILA ELEMI 

The name elemi is a term applied to a variety of resinous 
products obtained from different countries and having different 
botanical origins. There appears, however, to be little doubt 
that the species concerned all belong to the family Burseraceae. 
The greater part of the world's supply is derived from the Phil- 
ippine Islands, and is known as Manila elemi. It is obtained 
from the trunk of Canarium luzonicwm and is known locally by 
the Spanish term brea blanca (white pitch). 

Brea of the best quality is soft, sticky, opaque, slightly yellow 
in color, has a very agreeable resinous odor, and burns with a 
smoky flame. It is used locally as a varnish, for caulking boats, 
and for torches. As the brea is very sticky, in preparing the 
torches, it is usually gathered in the most convenient way pos- 
sible regardless of dirt and chips, and then kneaded on the 
ground by beating it with a piece of wood. When enough dirt 
has been mixed with it to make it stiff, it is rolled into shape 
and wrapped in a leaf of the anahau palm (Livistona) . Near 
the forest, these torches are usually sold for 1 centavo each, 
but in towns they are retailed for about 3 centavos each. They 
give a very brilliant light and burn for a long time. 

Manila elemi is exported from the Philippines in considerable 
quantities. The exports for the past five years are given in 
Table 4. 

Table 4. — Amount and value of Manila elemi exported from the Philippines 

from 19 H to 1918. 



Year. 


Amount. 


Value. 


1914 


Kilo- 
grams. 

35, 652 

11.380 

104,311 

78,848 

17, 136 


Pesos. 

9,478 

3,781 

45,852 

29, 525 

9,828 


1915 . 


1916 -_ 


1917. 


1918 





Some of the resin is shipped from Manila to Europe for use 
in preparing medicinal ointments and, to a smaller extent, in 
the manufacture of varnish; while much of the product is 
sent to China and is there used for making transparent paper 



RESINS 



41 







FIGURE 12. RESIN EXUDING FROM A TAPPED CANARIUM. 



42 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

for window-panes, in place of glass. In America it is rarely 
employed medicinally. 

The resin of Manila elemi is valuable as a material for pre- 
paring varnish, while the volatile oils are suitable for many 
purposes for which ordinary turpentine is used. 

Bottler and Sabin *, in discussing elemi, say: 

* * * It is not by itself made into a varnish, but is added to a 
variety of spirit varnishes; it makes them less brittle and more elastic. 
For this the various sorts of elemi are better than turpentine, because 
they hold their volatile oil more tenaciously. To make varnishes elastic, 
elemi, castor-oil, and Venetian turpentine are melted together, and this 
compound is added to the solution of resin. 

The following formula given by Bottler and Sabin is an ex- 
ample of an elastic varnish containing elemi. 

WHITE VARNISH SUITABLE FOR BOOKBINDERS. 

Parts. 

Sandarac 6 

Mastic 3 

Elemi 3 

Alcohol 150 

Concerning the use of Manila elemi for varnish, Bacon t 

states : 

The use of elemi residues with turpentine and linseed oil has not given 
us very satisfactory varnishes, for even with excessive quantities of driers, 
the varnish coat remains somewhat sticky for three or four days. This 
elemi residue, however^ mixed with varying proportions of Manila copal, 
melted with boiled linseed oil, and properly thinned with turpentine has 
given us most excellent varnishes, which give a hard, brilliant, and elastic 
coating on wood. The use of the elemi resin for varnishes seems not only 
to give a paler and more brilliant varnish than copal alone, but renders 
the melting of the copal much easier. I believe this elemi resin distillation 
residue has a future as a varnish gum. 

In the Philippines only one elemi gum is collected and this is 
obtained from Canarium luzonicum. When it first flows from 
the tree it is soft, but in the course of time hardens, the difference 
between the soft and the hard resin being that the latter has lost 
the greater part of its volatile constituents through evaporation. 

In Masbate, according to Forester Zschokke, the trees are 
tapped at the beginning of the rainy season and the process is 
repeated every other day until December. The resin is collected 
once a month and one man can take care of from 75 to 100 trees. 

* Bottler, M. and Sabin, A. H., German and American varnish making, 
(1912), page 21. 

t Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils, III. Philippine 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 4 (1909), page 100. 



RESINS 43 

The trees must be visited regularly to get good returns. The 
resin can be gathered at almost all seasons, but towards the end 
of the dry season the flow is very slight. Resin is collected from 
the same trees year after year. Clover * says that he has seen 
large-sized trees on which at least ten pounds of resin had ac- 
cumulated, probably within a month. Bacon f estimates that 
mature trees will yield an average of 45 kilos per year. He 
says that he has seen as much as 32 kilos of resin on a large tree. 
This amount represented a two months flow. 

In some localities where the resin is collected, it sells for about 
50 centavos per arroba of 11.5 kilos if clean and white, but when 
dark for about 30 centavos. In larger towns the best quality 
sells for about a peso a kilo and in Manila for about 3 pesos. 
If the industry of collecting the resin w^ere systematized, the 
cost in Manila would certainly be greatly reduced. 

Bacon J collected over one hundred specimens of elemi resin 
from individual trees. These samples of fresh elemi resin were 
distilled in vacuo, the volatile oils were then separated from the 
water, shaken out with dilute alkalies, dried over calcium 
chloride, and redistilled m vacuo; only the terpene fraction was 
collected. The terpenes were then distilled at ordinary pressure. 
These results verified the conclusions of Clover that the terpene 
oils of elemi resin obtained from different trees showed great 
differences in their boiling points and especially in optical rota- 
tion. For purposes of purification and identification, the various 
distillates of elemi resin were divided into different groups ac- 
cording to their boiling points. Bacon found that these dis- 
tillates consisted largely of various terpenes such as alpha and 
beta phellandrene, dipentene, limonene, etc. He prepared va- 
rious derivatives of these terpenes, such as phellandrene nitrite, 
dipentene tetrabromide, limonene tetrabromide, etc. Judging 
from Bacon's experiments, the best method for purifying elemi 
resin is by solution in benzene, filtering off the impurities such 
as bark and dirt, and distilling the filtrate. A white resin of 
leafy appearance is thus obtained. 

Bacon investigated nine samples of carefully purified terpenes 
from elemi resin obtained in Gumaca, Tayabas. The results are 
recorded in Table 5. 

* Clover, A. M., The terpene oils of Manila elemi. Philippine Journal 
of Science, Section A, Volume 2 (1907), pages 1 to 40. 

t Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils, III. Philippine 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 4 (1909), pages 93 to 265. 

t Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils, III. Philippine 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 4 (1909), page 93. 



44 



PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 
Table 5. — Manila elemis from Gumaca, Tayabas. 



No. 


N30^ 
D. 


Boiling 
point. 


Specific 
gravity, 

30° 
4°. 


A 30^ 
D. 


1 


1.4674 
1. 4658 
1.4673 
1.4672 
1.4680 
1.4670 
1.4670 
1. 4660 
1. 4670 


Degrees. 
175 -177 

165 -169 
175. 5-178 
175 -178 
173 -175 
175 -178 

175 -178 

166 -169 

176 -177 


0.8360 
0.8350 
0.8360 
0.8359 
0.8365 
0. 8358 
0. 8363 
0. 8355 
0.8364 


116.8 
92.2 
117.8 
111.8 
107.6 
117.9 
117.6 
90.7 
115.6 


2 


3 


4 . 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 





Bacon also investigated the residue left after the distillation 
of elemi. By the distillation of elemi in vacuo, he obtained from 
12 to 18 per cent of terpenes and from 12 to 15 per cent of a 
higher-boiling oil. The distillation residue, usually amounting 
to about 70 per cent of the elemi, is a light-brown, transparent, 
solid resin, with a brilliant fracture. The elemi residue is com- 
pletely and easily soluble in the cold in the following solvents : 
Alcohol, ether, benzol, petroleum ether, ligroin, xylol, chloro- 
form, amyl acetate, acetone, methyl alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, 
ethyl acetate, turpentine, amyl alcohol, and glacial acetic acid. 
As previously stated. Bacon considered the residue obtained from 
the distillation of elemi to have important commercial possibil- 
ities as a varnish gum. 

Clover * investigated the chemical properties of Manila elemi 
and found that: 

As ordinarily gathered for commerce, the resin is soft, sticky, and 
opaque, has a slightly yellow color, and a very agreeable odor. It has 
a spicy, somewhat bitter taste. If left exposed to the air for some time, 
it gradually hardens throughout and finally becomes brittle. The resin 
dissolves readily and completely in ether, chloroform, and benzene, except 
for the separation of a small amount of water which it contains and also 
a very small amount of a white, granular substance. In acetic ester, 
acetone, ligroin, methyl and ethyl alcohol it does not dissolve completely 
unless sufficient solvent is used. With these solvents a white, crystalline 
residue remains which, with the use of alcohol in limited quantity, amounts 
to about 25 per cent of the total * * * . Very soft Manila elemi 
contains a considerable amount of water, less than 5 per cent however, 
while that which has collected on the tree for a length of time contains 
very little. 



* Clover, A. M., The terpene oils of Manila elemi. 
of Science, Section A, Volume 2 (1907), pages 1 to 40. 



Philippine Journal 



RESINS 45 

The volatile portion of elemi resin is called elemi oil and 
is usually obtained by steam-distilling the resin. Clover collected 
samples of elemi resin from different trees. These samples were 
distilled and the optical rotation, specific gravity, and refractive 
index of these various distillates determined. The results 
varied considerably. Clover concluded that the great variation 
found in the different oils was due to a difference in the resin 
obtained from different trees. The following experiments per- 
formed with a sample of Manila elemi show the general proce- 
dure followed throughout in working with this resin. 

Sample II was collected near Atimonan, Tayabas, from a tree having 
a diameter of about 3 feet near the base and laden with unripe nuts. The 
sample, of which 815 grams were used, was softer than the previous one. 

The first distillate at 125°, amounted to 50 grams (II, A) ; the second 
at 210° (II, B), was 123 grams; the third at 250° (II, C), was 30 grams. 
The terpene oil was distilled from II, B at reduced pressure and the residue 
added to II, C. The total terpene oil was 132 grams or 16.2 per cent; the 
high-boiling oil, 71 grams or 8.7 per cent. 

II, A was decanted from a small amount of water which collected with it. 
It was then distilled twice at 36.5 millimeters, passing over the second 
time almost completely between 82°. 5 and 83°. 5; three-fourths of it dis- 
tilled at almost a constant temperature or at most within 0°.25 (II, A, 

30 
purified), cr -=+100°. The product gave no test for phellandrene. 

With bromine in acetic acid the 104° to 105° melting limonene tetrabromide 
was obtained and a granular nitrosyl-chloride was also readily formed. 
It also gave dipentene dihydrochloride melting at 50°. It was distilled 
from metallic sodium, after which it boiled completely between 176° and 
177°, accordingly at a slightly lower temperature than I, A, purified; 
however, it possessed the same odor and, so far as could be determined, 
was identical in all other respects. 

II, C stood for over a year and was then fractionated twice at reduced 
pressure, whereupon about one-half of it was obtained as a light, yellowish- 
green product, boiling completely from 167° to 169°. 5 at 35 millimeters 
(II, C, purified). 

30 30 30 

Sp. gr., ^ = 0.9522. a^=-2°.7. rtg- = 1.4973. 

Clover was able to isolate various terpenes such as dextro- 
limonene, dextro-phellandrene, terpinene, and terpinolene from 
different samples of the resin. 

Clover concluded that: 

The combined results obtained by a careful examination of the oils 
obtained from 21 individual samples of resin establish the true composi- 
tion of elemi oil so far as these samples may be considered as representa- 
tive of the aggregate product. In several cases, notably in the last sample 
examined, substances were obtained which were not encountered in any 
other; it seems possible, therefore, that were the investigation continued, 
still others would be found in which new constituents would appear. 



46 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

although such cases would be rare and the substances themselves would 
constitute so small a proportion of the aggregate oil that they would 
scarcely need to be taken into account. 

It is obvious that in considering Manila clemi or the oil obtained there- 
from as products of a species, we must deal with an aggregate sample 
of these products; a sample derived from so great a number of individual 
trees that the peculiarities of the individuals disappear. If the native 
gatherer of resin utilizes a large number of trees and regularly removes 
the resin from them in small portions, the product which he places upon 
the market will be nearly homogeneous and a representative sample; but 
if he obtains his resin from a limited number of individuals his product 
will not be representative and, if he utilizes resin which has accumulated 
upon the trees in large quantity, it will not be homogeneous. 

The great variation which I found at different times in the oil obtained 
from commercial elemi is readily explained. It is plain what the com- 
position of elemi oil is when considered as an aggregate product; it should 
be remembered that to the laevo-limonene which accompanies phellandrene 
should bQ added an equal amount of dextro-limonene and the whole con- 
sidered as dipentene. 

Granted that we have a representative sample of resin, the composition 
of the oil will also be influenced by the following factors: 

(1) The age of the resin. 

(2) The temperature of the distillation. This factor vdll largely de- 
termine the proportion of the high-boiling part of the oil and will influence 
the composition of the terpene portion, because some of the terpenes suffer 
a change at higher temperatures. 

(3) The length of time used in the distillation. This factor will in- 
fluence only the proportion of high-boiling oil. 

Yield of oil. — In the first seven samples examined considerable differ- 
ence was found in the oil content. While there may be a certain amount 
of variation shown by the individual samples in this respect, it is thought 
that the differences found are more directly connected with the age of the 
resin. As previously noted, Schimmel & Co. state that the yield of oil 
is from 15 to 30 per cent. In several cases where I have examined 
samples of fresh, soft, resin purchased in Manila, I have always found 
the total yield to be from 25 to 30 per cent of the weight of the resin. 

This species has been grown in plantations at Los Baiios. 
Thirty-nine per cent of the seeds planted germinated. At the 
end of 7 years the trees averaged 4.37 meters in height and 4 
centimeters in diameter. 

Canarium luzonicum is a tree reaching a height of about 35 
meters and a diameter of 1 meter or more. The leaves are 
pinnate, with usually three pairs of opposite leaflets and a ter- 
minal leaflet. The leaflets are smooth, pointed at the apex, 
rounded or obtusely pointed at the base, and from 12 to 20 
centimeters in length. The flowers are fairly small and are 
borne on large compound inflorescences. The fruits are some- 
what oval in shape, about 3 centimeters long, and contain a thick- 
shelled, triangular, edible nut. 



RESINS 



47 



• This species is very abundant in the forests of Luzon and is 
also found in Marinduque, Ticao, Mindoro, and Masbate. 

CANARIUM VILLOSUM F. Villa. (Fig. 13). Pagsahingin. 

Local names: Antel (Ilocos Norte); dnteng (Ilocos Sur, Ilocos Norte, 
Zambales, Abra, Cagayan, Pangasinan, Union) ; brea (Zamboanga) ; dalit 
(Pangasinan) ; giret (Cagayan) ; koHho (Isabela) ; milipili or saong-sdong 
(Cebu) ; paksahingin (Bataan) ; pagsahingin (Laguna, Mindoro, Manila, 
Bataan) ; palsahingin (Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Batangas, Zambales, Ma- 
rinduque) ; patsaingin (Rizal); pisa (Abra); sdling (Palawan, Bataan); 
sulu-saungan (Negros) ; tabul (Benguet). 

PAGSAHINGIN RESIN 

This species yields a resin known locally as sahing. 

It is used locally for fuel and light and in some cases as caulk- 
ing material for bancas. 

Bacon * examined the oil obtained from this resin and found 
that it consisted principally of paracymol. In a later publica- 
tion Bacon f gives the results of further investigation : 

In November, 1909, 3.5 kilos of resin were collected from one tree near 
Lamao, Bataan Province. The volatile oil was distilled* from the resin 
in vacuo (4 to 6 millimeters) giving a total of 390 grams of oil (about 11 
per cent). The latter had an odor like that obtained during a similar 
distillation of Manila elemi (C luzonicum A. Gray), and the aqueous 
portion of the distillate contained a considerable amount of formic acid, 
although there were no visible evidences of decomposition of the resin 
during the distillation in vacuo. The oil was then distilled six times over 
sodium, using a column of glass beads in the neck of the distilling flask, 
and gave the following fractions: 



Fraction No. 


Weight. 


Boiling 
point. 


Refrac- 
tive 
index, 
N 30 
D. 


Specific 
gravity, 

30 

30 


Optical 
rotation, 
A 30 
D. 


1 


Grams. 
102 
19 
45 
40 
47 
10 


Degrees. 

154-158 
158-161 
161-165 
165-170 
170-175 
175-180 


1.4645 
1. 4660 
1.4690 
1.4730 
1. 4770 
1. 4795 


852 
851 
850 
849 
849 


39.4 
34.7 
29.4 
21.1 
13.5 

1 


2 


3 

4... 


5 - 


6 




.. 1 



The residue was a thick, brown, viscous oil, which was attacked by 
sodium when an attempt was made to distill it over that metal. 

Fraction No. 1 had a strong odor of pinene, and Nos. 1, 2, and 3 each 

* Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils. III. Philippine 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 4 (1909), page 94. 
• t Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils, IV. Philippine 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 5 (1910), page 257. 



48 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

readily gave large yields of pinene hydrochloride, melting at 125°. From* 
the higher boiling fractions a very small quantity of dipentene was ob- 
tained, the tetrabromide melting at 124°. 

The principal constituent of the volatile oil of this sample of the pag- 
sainguin resin is therefore rf-pinene. In a previous paper I have shovi^n, 
from the examination of a very large number of specimens of Manila elemi 
from individual trees, that the terpenes found in these trees vary quite 
markedly from tree to tree, and that one tree usually yields but a single 
terpene. The same would probably seem to hold good for the pagsainguin 
resin, and it appears probable that these Canarium ti'ees manufacture a 
large series of terpenes and also the parent substance of terpenes, p-cymol. 
The next step will be to study the resin from one tree for a considerable 
length of time, to discover whether, for example, an individual tree always 
gives a resin containing pinene, or whether at one time it yields a product 
having pinene as a constituent, at another, a resin containing phellandrene, , 
etc. * * * The resin should be of considerable value in making clear 
the physiologic process of the plant in the formation of resins. 

Canarium villosum is a tree reaching a diameter of 1 meter or 
over. The young branches, leaves, and inflorescences are more 
or less covered with soft brown hairs; in age, they become 
nearly smooth. The leaves are pinnate and from 20 to 50 centi- 
meters long; the leaflets 7 to 15 centimeters in length, the base 
rounded, or somewhat heart-shaped, the apex pointed. The 
flowers are greenish white, hairy, and 4 to 5 millimeters long. 
The fruit is about 1 centimeter long and rounded in cross section. 
The wood is very similar to that of Canarium luzonicum. 

This species is a native of, and confined to, the Philippines., 
It is widely distributed. 

Family DIPTEROCARPACEAE 

All species of the family Dipterocarpaceae produce more or 
less resin. The dipterocarps are for the most part large trees, 
many of them reaching a height of 50 or 60 meters. They are^ 
the dominant species in the tall, lowland forests in the Philippines 
and in many other parts in the Indo-Malayan region. One of 
the most striking peculiarities of this family is that the species 
occur in large numbers, the bulk of many forests being com- 
posed of one or a few species of dipterocarps. As the diptero- 
carps constitute about three-fourths of the total stand of timber 
in the Islands, it is evident that the dipterocarp resins could be 
collected in great quantities. The most important of these resins 
are balau, a resinous oil obtained from Dipterocarpus grancli- 
florus (apitong), Dipterocarpus vernicifluus (panau) and other 
species of Dipterocarpus, and a similar resin from Anisoptera 
thurifera (palosapis). Balau is used locally to a considerable* 
extent and has commercial possibilities. 



RESINS 



49 




FIGURE 13. CANARIUM VILLOSUM (PAGSAHfNGIN). THE SOURCE OF PAGSAHiNGIN 

RESIN. Xh 
168837 4 



50 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

• 

The Bureau of Forestry has authentic specimens of resin 
from Hopea acuminata, Parashorea malaanonan, Pentacme con- 
torta, Shorea halangeran, Shorea eximia, SJwrea negrosensis, 
Shorea palosapis, Shorea pohjsperma and Vatica mangachapoi, 
while Heyne reports that Isoptera horneensis yields resin in 
small quantities. 

Balau hardens only after long exposure, but most of the dip- 
terocarp resins harden rapidly to a dry, brittle consistency 
They vary from a light yellow or grayish tinge to almost black. 
Very little is known of the chemical composition or possible 
industrial uses of the various quick-drying dipterocarp resins. 

Genus ANISOPTERA ' 

ANISOPTERA THURIFERA Blanco. (Figs. 14, 15). Palosapis. 

Local names: Apitong (Sibuyan Island, Capiz) ; apnit, dimng (Abra) ; 
hagobalong (Samar) ; betes or letis (Masbate) ; ddgang (Rizal, Bulacan, 
Albay, Camarines) ; ddgum (Laguna, Tayabas, Albay) ; duyong (Ilocos 
Sur, Ilocos Norte) ; laudn (Rizal) ; laudn puti (Nueva Ecija) ; litis (Ticao 
Island, Iloilo) ; mala-dtis (Rizal) ; maydjns (Rizal, Bataan, Zambales, Nueva 
Ecija, Bulacan); palosapis (Zambales, Pangasinan, Bataan, Nueva Ecija). 

PALOSAPIS RESIN 

A resinous oil, frequently known as oil of palosapis, is obtained 
from the trunk of this species. This resin is very similar to 
balau from Dipterocarpus grandifiorus, is obtained in the same 
manner, and is used for the same purposes. < 

Clover * says that an examination of the resinous oil from 
Anisoptera thurifera (which he called mayapis) proved it to be 
similar to that from Dipterocarpus grandifiorus and D. vernici- 
fluus, but that it dried much more rapidly than either of the 
latter; that it was light colored, apparently homogenous in 
composition, and so viscous that it could scarcely be poured/ 
Heating to 100' caused it to harden, and exposure to the air 
produced the same effect, changing it to a pearly, white solid. 
He found that it contained 15 per cent of water and 25 per 
cent of sesquiterpene oil, which could be removed by careful 
distillation without decomposition. The residue was hard. 

The oil redistilled at 17 millimeters, possessed the characteristic odor 
of the resin, and was very light yellow in color. Boiling point, 132'' to 



/30°v 
140° (17 millimeters. Specific gravity, (on 1=0 



9056. 



Anisoptera thurifera reaches a height of 40 to 45 meters and 



* Clover, A. M. Philippine wood oils. Philippine Journal of Science, , 
Volume 1 (1906), page 191. 



RESINS 



51 




52 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

a diameter of 140 to 180 centimeters. It has a straight, regular, 
unbuttressed bole that is three-fifths to two-thirds of the height 
of the tree. The canopy is dense during the rainy season 
and open in the dry, at which time it changes leaves. The bark 
is from 15 to 25 millimeters thick; in young trees smooth and 
with a yellowish tinge; in older trees, especially at the base, 
broken into irregular patches and dirty brown in color. The 
bark beneath the surface has a reddish-brown color; the inner 
bark is granular brownish-yellow; the granular coloring being 
due to broken, concentric rings of yellow. The leaves are alter- 
nate, rounded at the base, pointed at the tip, from 7.5 to 16 
centimeters long, and from 3 to 7 centimeters wide. The fruit* 
is rounded, 4 to 15 millimeters in diameter, and with two wings 
which are 5 to 9 centimeters long, and sometimes more than 
a centimeter broad. 

The heartwood is yellowish with rose-colored streaks and 
blotches or evenly rose-colored. When seasoned, the color is 
pale yellow with reddish or light yellowish-brown markings. 
It is used considerably for construction. 

This species is common and widely distributed in the Phil- 
ippines. It has been reported from the following localities : — 
Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Abra, Pangasinan, Zambales, Nueva 
Ecija, Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines, Al- 
bay, Sibuyan Island, Capiz, Iloilo, Ticao Island, Samar, Masbate,' 
Zamboanga. Anisoptera thurifera is the commonest and best 
known species of the genus in the Philippines, but the wood of 
all is known commercially as palosapis. According to Fox- 
worthy,* palosapis ranks about tenth in order of abundance 
among the Philippine woods and makes up about 1.5 per cent 
of the volume of the forests. ^ 

Genus DIPTEROCARPUS 
DIPTEROCARPUS GRANDIFLORUS Blanco. (Figs. 16-19). Api'tong. 
Local names: Anahduon (Camarines); apitong (Bataan, Cagayan, Isa- 
bela, Abra, Benguet, Zambales, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Laguna, Tayabas, 
Camarines, Albay, Mindoro, Sibuyan Island, Samar, Negros, Palawan) ; 
baldu (Misamis, Sibuyan Island, Negros, Capiz, Misamis, Agusan) ; danlog, 
lefts (Capiz); diien (Isabela) ; duko (Isabela; Apayao) ; duko, pamalalien 
(Cagayan); hagakhdk (Sibuyan Island); himpagtdn (Samar); kamuyau 
(Palaui Island, Cagayan); malapdho, maydpis (Tayabas); pagsahingan 
(Laguna) ; pamantulen (Pangasinan) ; paviarnisen (Cagayan, Camari- 
nes) ; pdnaii (Bataan, Zambales, Rizal) ; pdnau verdadero (Bulacan). 

* Foxworthy, F. W., Philippine Dipterocarpaceae, II. Philippine Journal* 
of Science, Volume 13 (1918), pages 163-197. 



RESINS 



53 










FIGURE 15. BARK AND LEAVES OF ANISOPTERA THURIFERA (PALOSAPIS), THE 
SOURCE OF PALOSaPIS RESIN. 



54 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

f 

BALAU (APITONG) RESIN 

Oil obtained from the trunk of this tree is known as balau, 
and is used locally as an illuminant, for varnishing, and for 
caulking boats. Balau resin used as a varnish produces a very 
brilliant, tough, and durable coating and according to Bacon * 
seems to have properties that would make its general use for 
varnish manufacture desirable. It has, however, the serious 
disadvantage of drying very slowly and, in its original state, 
has not yet been successfully combined with linseed oil or other 
dryers. Bacon, by distillation, obtained a hard, yellow, lustrous 
resin soluble to the extent of about 75 per cent in alcohol or 
turpentine, the solutions giving hard, lustrous varnish coatings. 
This resin dissolves completely in two volumes of linseed oil and 
two of turpentine, giving a varnish which dries slowly (five 
days) to a tough, hard coating. 

Balau is collected by chopping into the tree and making a 
cavity where the oil can collect. Often the cuts extend half- 
way through the trunk. The flow may amount to more than 
a kilo per day. It is customary to remove the resin every few 
days and to apply fire to the cuts at frequent intervals. It is 
reported that the same tree can be tapped for a number of years. 
Tapping usually results in the entrance of decay organisms 
and the ultimate death of the tree. For this reason all trees ^ 
which are tapped for balau should be cut and used for timber 
before the wood is destroyed. 

Balau is a thick fluid when fresh, but hardens after long 
exposure to a semi-plastic condition. The total recorded pro- 
duction in 1917 was 54,080 kilos. 

According to Clover f balau consists of a solid resin, water,, 

and a volatile oil which is present to the extent of about 35 

per cent. Balau has a feeble, characteristic odor and dissolves 

in the usual organic solvents except alcohol. The water which 

the oil contains appears to be chemically combined and is not 

removed easily by distillation. When distilled directly, all the 

water and a portion of the oil passes over below 260". A sample 

was distilled under diminished pressure (40 mm.) at 151° to 

154-. The optical rotation of this fraction was 78°. 5 (10 cen- 

30 
timeters, 30°). The specific gravity was ^n =0.9127. It had 



* Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils, III. Philippine 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 4 (1909), page 93. 

t Clover, A. M., Philippine wood oils. Philippine Journal of Science, 
Section A, Volume 1 (1906), page 195. 



RESINS 



55 




FIGURE 16. DIPTEROCARPUS GRANDIFLORUS (APiTONG), A SOURCE OF BALaU. 



56 



PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 




FIGURE 17. BARK AND LEAVES OF DIPTEROCARPUS GRANDIFLORUS (APfTONG), A t 

SOURCE OF BALaU. 



RESINS 



57 



20 '^^'' 





FIGURE IS. FRUITS OF DIPTEROCARPUS 6RANDIFL0RUS (APfTONG). 



58 



PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 



a light yellow color and the characteristic odor of balau. Treat- 
ment with sodium shows that it contains no alcoholic substances. 
Although it reacts with halogen acids, it was not possible to 
separate out a crystalline substance such as a hydrochloride. As 
the range in the boiling point of balau is considerably greater 
than that of a pure chemical compound, it is probably a mixture 
of sesquiterpenes. 

Bacon * performed a number of experiments to determine the 
solubility of balau in various solvents. He also distilled the 
resin and separated the distillate into various fractions. Dr. 
M. V. del Rosario made determinations on these fractions and 
obtained the results recorded in Table 6. 

Table 6. — Constants of fractions of Balau. 



No. 


Specific 

gravity. index 
''" number. 

4." 


Saponifi- 
cation 
number. 


Acid 
number. 


1 

2 


0.9089 
0.8882 
0. 9387 


268.3 
192.1 
120.9 


4.01 
10.7 


1.8 
23.0 


3 


■ " 1 
12.75 1 18.0 1 










1 



Dipterocai-pus grandiflorus reaches a height of from 40 to 
45 meters and a diameter of 180 centimeters. The bole is 
straight and regular and from 25 to 30 meters in length. The 
bark is from 6 to 8 millimeters thick, and is brittle. It varies 
in color from a brown gray to a light gray. It is shed in large 
scroll-shaped plates and has numerous corky pustules. The 
inner bark has a reddish color. The leaves are alternate, 
leathery, smooth, pointed at the tip, usually rounded at the base, 
from 19 to 30 centimeters in length, and from 9.5 to 17 centi- 
meters in width. The flowers are about 5 centimeters long, 
rose-colored, fragrant, and borne on racemes having about four 
flowers. The fruit is about 5 centimeters long, with five wing- 
like projections from the sides, and at one end two wings which 
are 14 to 23 centimeters long and 3 to 5 centimeters wide. 

The wood is moderately hard to hard, stiff, and strong. The 
heartwood is light ashy red to reddish brown or dark brown. 
It is used for posts; beams, joists, rafters; flooring; bridge and 
wharf constructions except piles; wagon beds; ship planking, 
barges and lighters; ties, paving blocks, mine timbers; cheap 
and medium-grade furniture. 



* Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils, III. 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 4 (1909), page 93. 



Philippine 



RESINS 



59 




FIGURE 19. DIPTEROCARPUS GRANDIFLORUS (AP(TONG) BOXED FOR RESIN. 



60 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

Apitong is the most generally used construction wood in the 
Islands. It is apparently impossible to distinguish com- 
mercially between the wood of the different species of Dipte- 
rocavpus and that of all the species known commercially as 
apitong. Apitong is the most abundant wood in the Philippine 
Islands, composing, according to Foxworthy,* 20 per cent of 
the volume of our commercial forests. 

Dipterocarpus grandifloriis is found throughout the Philip- 
pine Archipelago, and has been reported from the following 
localities: Palaui Island, Cagayan, Isabela, Apayao, Benguet, 
Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan, Abra, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, 
Zambales, Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines, 
Mindoro, Capiz, Sibuyan Island, Albay, Samar, Negros, Pala- 
wan, Misamis, and Agusan. It is especially plentiful in regions 
where the dry season is pronounced. 

DIPTEROCARPUS VERNICIFLUUS Blanco. (Figs. 20-22). Panau. 

Local names: Afu (Ilocos Norte); apitong (Mindoro, Polillo, Bataan, 
Tayabas, Marinduque, Leyte, Laguna, Samar); baldu (Rizal, Zamboanga) ; 
duen, lamilan (Isabela) ; gan-dn (Camarines) ; kalusuban (Ilocos Sur) ; 
kamuyau, kurimau, pagsaingin, pamarnisen (Cagayan) ; laudn (Negros, 
Rizal, Nueva Ecija); lipot or lipus (Agusan); Hpus (Surigao) ; malapdho 
(Polillo); matutalina (Zamboanga); padsahvTgin (Laguna); pamantiilen 
(Pangasinan) ; pdnmi (Rizal, Palawan, Bataan, Zambales, Bulacan, Panga- 
sinan, Davao, Cotabato, Cagayan, Laguna, Pampanga, Tayabas, Nueva 
Ecija.) 

BALAU (panau) RESIN 

Oil obtained from the trunk of this species is very similar 
to balau from Dipterocarpus grandiflorus, is used for the same 
purposes, and is regularly called balau. This oil is also known 
as oil of panau, and sometimes as malapaho. 

Clover,t who investigated the chemical properties of oil of 
panau states that the method of obtaining this oil from the tree 
is the same as that used in the case of balau. It is reported 
that a gallon per day is sometimes obtained. The fresh resin 
is a white, viscous, sticky fluid having a characteristic odor 
by which it is distinguished from similar products. When ex- 
posed to the air, oxygen is absorbed and the color gradually turns 
brown. It hardens very slowly when exposed in a thin film. It 
is insoluble in water, but dissolves in ether or chloroform with 
the separation of water. When distilled with a free flame it acts 

* Foxworthy, F. W., Philippine Dipterocarpaceae, II. Philippine Journal 
of Science, Section C, Volume 13 (1918), page 163, 

t Clover, A. M., Philippine wood oils. Philippine Journal of Science, 
Section A, Volume 1 (1906), page 198. 



RESINS 



61 




FIGURE 20. DIPTEROCARPUS VERNICIFLUUS (PANAU), A SOURCE OF BALAU. 



62 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

like balau and yields about 25 per cent of water, 35 per cent 
of oil, and 40 per cent of solid residue. It probably consists 
of water, sesquiterpene oils, and solids. 

Diptero carpus vcrnicifluus reaches a height of 40 to 45 meters 
and a diameter of 160 to 180 centimeters. The bole is straight, 
regular, and reaches a length of 28 to 32 meters. It usually 
has very prominent buttresses. The bark is from 5 to 8 milli- 
meters thick, light brown to gray in color, scaling in large 
patches, and is covered with numerous corky pustules. The 
inner bark is brown to reddish brown and stringy in texture. 
The young stems and the midrib and secondary nerves of the 
leaves are covered with long hairs. The leaves are alternate, 
leathery, pointed at the tip, rounded at the base, from 10 to 23 
centimeters long, and 6 to 13 centimeters wide. The flowers 
are about 4 centimeters long, white, tinged with pink, and very 
fragrant. The fruits are rounded, about 1.5 centimeters in 
diameter and bear two long wings which are about 12 centi- 
meters in length and 2 or 3 centimeters in breadth. The wood 
is very similar to that of Dipterocarpus grandiflorus and has 
the same uses. 

This species abounds in regions with a pronounced dry season 
and has been reported from the following localities: Cagayan, 
Isabela, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan, Zambales, Nueva 
Ecija, Pampanga, Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Ca- 
marines, Marinduque, Polillo, Negros, Samar, Leyte, Palawan, 
Misamis, Surigao, Agusan, Davao, Cotabato, and Zamboanga. 



RESINS 



63 




jVUan del. 

FIGURE 21. DIPTEROCARPUS VERNICIFLUUS (PANAU), A SOURCE OF BALAU. 



64 



PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 




GUMS 

Gums are amorphous substances which exude from plants or 
which may be extracted by solvents. The true gums, such as 
acacia and tragacanth, have the property of either dissolving in 
water or taking up a sufficient amount of water to become gluti- 
nous and form a sticky liquid (mucilage). There are, however, a 
number of well-known substances like rubber and gutta-percha, 
which resemble the true gums, but are insoluble in water. 
• Substances of this nature are obtained from plants which have 
capillary tubes containing a milky juice. This juice (latex) 
may occur in the stems, leaves, or roots. The latex ap- 
pears to be an emulsion which contains a number of substances 
in varying proportions. An idea of the composition of one of 
these milky juices may be obtained from the following figures * 
which represent the analysis of the latex of Hevea hraziliensis, 
the plant from which para rubber is obtained. 

Per cent. 

Water 55.0 

Rubber 38.5 

Proteins 3.0 

Resins 3.0 

» Mineral matter 0.5 

The latex may be obtained by making incisions in the trunk 
of the tree. This cuts the latex tubes and allows the milky 
juice to exude. The juice thus obtained is collected in small 
vessels and may be coagulated in various ways, such as by 
smoking or by treatment with a salt solution. The latex may 
also be extracted by other mechanical or chemical methods. 

The most important substances produced in the Philippines 
which may be classified as gums are rubber and gutta-percha. 
The wild rubber is small in amount, and the native plants do 
not appear to offer any prospect for a considerable industry. 
The southern Philippines seem, however, to be well suited for 
the production of plantation rubber, and the rates of growth 
of Hevea hraziliensis in this region compare favorably with 
rates elsewhere.f 

* Rogers, A., Industrial chemistry, 1915, page 704. 

t Yates, H. S., The growth of Hevea hraziliensis in the Philippine Islands. 
» Philippine Journal of Science, Volume 14 (1919), pages 501-523. 

168837 5 65 



66 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

In the Philippines very little rubber has yet been planted, ' 
despite the fact that the United States is the world's greatest 
consumer of crude rubber. The imports of crude rubber into 
the United States for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1917, 
were 151,533,505 kilos valued at ?=378,657,348.$ The imports 
from the British and Dutch East Indies for the same period 
were 82,468,900 kilos valued at ^208,451,104. At the present 
time practically all the plantation rubber produced in the Phil- 
ippines is grown on one plantation in the Island of Basilan. 
Several other plantations are, however, beginning to produce 
rubber. 

Large quantities of gutta-percha have been collected in the , 
southern Philippines, and at the present time gutta-percha, ob- 
tained from wild species, is still being exported. However, as 
in the case of rubber, no very considerable industry can be 
expected until the trees are grown in plantations. 

The next most promising Philippine gums would seem to be 
those which form the basis of chewing gum. Two native spe- 
cies of Artocarpus appear worthy of note in this respect, while 
Achras sapota (chico), the source of gum chicle, is grown ex- 
tensively throughout the Archipelago for its edible fruits. 
Gum chicle is exported in enormous quantities from Mexico to 
the United States, where it is the principal substance used in 
the manufacture of chewing gum. In the Philippines this prod- < 
uct has apparently never been collected. 

Family ORCHIDACEAE 

Genus GEODORUM 
GEODORUM NUTANS (Presl) Ames. 

Local names: Bandabok (Palawan); cebollas del monte (Cavite) ; kula * 
(Manila); bibi-lubi (Negros). 

GEODORUM NUTANS GUM 

The tuberous roots contain a substance which is used as a glue, 
especially in cementing together parts of mandolins, guitars, 
and other musical instruments. In preparing the glue the rhi- 
zomes are first cooked and then finely grated. Glue thus 
prepared is said to have great tenacity. 

Several other Philippine orchids are used for the same 
purpose. 

Geodorum nutans is a terrestrial orchid with somewhat fleshy 
underground roots. It reaches a height of 70 centimeters. The 



t India Rubber World, Volume 57 (1917), page 59. 



GUMS 



67 




FIGURE 23. ARTOCARPUS CUMINGIANA (ANUBING), A SOURCE OF CHEWING GUM. 



68 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

shoot bears two or four large leaves, which are variable in size. 
The leaves are rather narrow, pointed, and up to 35 centimeters 
in length and 7 centimeters in width. The flowering shoots are 
20 to 25 centimeters in length and leafless. The flowers are pale 
pink to purple, about 1 centimeter long and numerous. 

This species is widely distributed in the Philippines and is also 
found in Formosa. It occurs particularly in thickets and open 
places. 

Family MORACEAE 

Genus ARTOCARPUS 
ARTOCARPUS CUMINGIANA Tree. (Fig. 23). Anubing. 

Local names: Ayiuhing (Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Zambales, Rizal, Laguna, ' 
Tayabas, Camarines, Sorsogon, Mindoro, Nueva Ecija, Sibuyan) ; anubling 
or kamihling (Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon) ; bayuko, isis (Negros, Iloilo) ; 
kalandhan (Bontoc) ; kamandcig (Cagayan) ; koliimg (Abra) ; kiihi (Ta- 
yabas, Mindoro, Masbate, Ticao, Negros, Surigao) ; ohien or ubien (Abra, 
Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Benguet, Union). 

ANUBING GUM 

The latex of this species would appear to be promising material 
for chewing gum. 

This species has been grown in plantations at Los Baiios. 
Two separate lots of seeds were planted. In one case the percent- 
age of germination was 61.7 and in the other 28.7. At the end 
of 7 years the average rate of growth was 2.5 meters. , 

Artocarpus mmiinf/imia is a tree reaching a height of about 30 
meters and a diameter of about 100 centimeters. The leaves are 
alternate, hairy, pointed or slightly heart-shaped at the base, and 
average 20 centimeters long, and 10 centimeters wide. The 
petioles are 1 to 2 centimeters long. The male heads are pear- 
shaped and 1 to 2 centimeters long. The female heads are^ 
rounded and nearly 2 centimeters in diameter. 

This species is distributed from northern Luzon to Mindanao. 

ARTOCARPUS ELASTICA Reinw. (Fig. 24). GUMIHAN. 

Local names: Antipolo (Tayabas, Samar) ; gumihan (Camarines, Albay, 
Sorsogon); tugilp (Surigao, Davao). 

GUMIHAN GUM 

The latex of this tree hardens into a somewhat brittle sub- 
stance resembling in color and consistency the stick chewing 
gum put on the market years ago, before it was blended with 
sugar and flavored. As far as is known, the gum of Artocarpus 
elastica has not been collected in quantity nor has any analysis ^ 
been made of it. The latex of some species of Artocarpus is 
used locally in compounding bird lime. 



GUMS 



69 














FIGURE 24. ARTOCARPUS ELASTICA (GUMiHAN), A SOURCE OF CHEWING GUM. Xi. 



70 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

Heyne * reports that oil from the seeds of Artocarpus elastica 
is used in cooking and as a hair oil. 

Artocarpus elastica is a stately tree with trunks 60 to 90 cen- 
timeters in diameter. The leaves are alternate, crowded, obtuse 
at both ends, occasionally lobed towards the apex, the larger 
ones 20 to 30 centimeters wide, and 60 to 90 centimeters long. 
The male spikes are cylindrical, oblong, soft or spongy, and 
yellowish. The female heads are somewhat rounded or ellip- 
tical. The fruit is heavy, at least 10 centimeters long, and 
covered with brownish, hairy appendages. The seeds are em- 
bedded in whitish, more or less gummy pulp of a delicious tart 
flavor. They resemble peanuts, and when roasted have a similar 
flavor. 

There are about twenty species of the genus Artocarpiis, all 
having latices which resemble those of anubing and gumihan, 
and which are used for various purposes such as making bird- 
lime and other sticky substances. 

Family LEGUMINOSAE 

Genus ACACIA 
ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. Aroma. 

The gum of this species is mentioned under the heading of 
essential oils. 

Genus SESBANIA 
SESBANIA GRAN Dl FLORA Pers. Katurai. 

Local names: Diana (Davao) ; katuri (Pampanga, Tayabas) ; katudai 
(Ilocos Norte and Sur, Abra, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Union) ; katurai 
(Cagayan, Pangasinan, Tarlac, Bulacan, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Taya- 
bas, Manila, Batangas, Laguna, Mindoro, Camarines, Zamboanga) ; gauai- 
gduai (Manila, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, Capiz, Negros) ; gaui-gdui 
(Guimaras Island). 

KATURAI GUM 

This species produces a clear gum used locally as a substitute 
for gum arable. The flowers and young fruits are cooked and 
eaten as vegetables. 

Sesbania grandiflora is a tree 5 to 10 meters in height. The 
leaves are alternate, 20 to 30 centimeters long, and pinnate with 
20 to 40 pairs of leaflets, which are 2.5 to 3.5 centimeters long. 
The flowers are white and from 7 to 9 centimeters long. The 
pods are 20 to 60 centimeters long, 7 to 8 millimeters wide, some- 
what curved, and contain many seeds. 



* Heyne, K., De Nuttige Planten van Nederlandsch-Indie, Volume 2 
(1916), page 49. 



GUMS 7X 

• 

This species is not uncommon in cultivation in the Philippines, 
and is half wild. 

Family EUPHORBIACEAE 

Genus MACARANGA 
MACARANGA TANARIUS Muell-Arg. BiNUNGA. 

Local names: Alangabim, anabun (Bagobo) ; bagambdng, ma-dsim (Ri- 
zal); bilua (Pampanga) ; biluan, binungan, malabunga, biludn4aldki (Ba- 
taan) ; bilunga (Tayabas) ; bing-iia (Nueva Vizcaya) ; binunga (Bataan, 
Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Camarines, Polillo, Mindoro, Guimaras Island, 
Negros, Palawan) ; binuga, lungakan, (Davao) ; gamu, sdmuk (Cagayan) ; 
ginabang (Benguet) ; labauel (Lepanto) ; lagau (Bisaya) ; lagaon, ligabon 
^ (Manobo) ; malabunga (Mindanao) ; minddng (Camarines) ; viinunga 
(Agusan) ; sdmak (Ilocos Norte, Abra, Camiguin Island). 

BINUNGA GUM 

A glue used for fastening together the parts of musical in- 
struments such as guitars, violins, etc., is obtained from the 
bark of this tree. The bark is tapped by V-shaped incisions, 
and the sap collected and used shortly afterwards. It is said 
that if the sap is allowed to stand until it becomes sticky, it 
is worthless for the above-mentioned purposes. Heyne * men- 
tions a similar use in Java. 

Macaranga tanariiis is a small tree reaching a height of 4 to 
8 meters. The leaves are alternate, 10 to 25 centimeters long, 
» shield-shaped, with the petiole attached to the lower surface 
within the margin. 

This species is very common and widely distributed in open 
places and second-growth forests throughout the Philippines. 

Family SAPOTACEAE 

» Genus ACHRAS 

ACHRAS SAPOTA L. ChiCO. 

CHICLE GUM 

Gum chicle, which is the principal substance used in the manu- 
facture of chewing gum, is derived from the bark of this plant. 
In the Philippines, Achras sapota is extensively grown for its 
edible fruits known as chicos. No gum chicle is produced locally, 
although it would seem that it might be a profitable industry. 
The following short account of gum chicle is taken from the 
National Standard Dispensatory.f 

Somewhat like Gutta-percha in its general nature is Chicle, or Gum 

* Heyne, K., De Nuttige Planten van Nederlandsch-Indie, Volume 3 
(1916), page 86. 

t National Standard Dispensatory (1905), page 751. 



72 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

c 

Chicle, now the principal substance used in the manufacture of chewing- 
gum, and derived from Achras Sapota L. (Sapota Achras Mill., the Sabo- 
dilla, Sapotilla, White sapota, Naseherry, or Ya, of tropical America, where 
this tree supplies one of the most important edible fruits. Although the 
substance is collected in many parts of Mexico and Central America, the 
principal sources of supply are in Yucatan. The milk-juice is obtained 
from incisions made in the bark, performed with great care and by ex- 
perienced persons. Tapping may occur once in 3 years without great 
danger to the life of the tree. The raw milk is boiled and then allowed 
to harden in brick-shaped moulds. If carefully prepared, it usually turns 
out of a white or whitish color, though that of some trees is said to turn 
out red in any case, a result which will also occur if the ordinary milk be 
ovei-cooked. If undercooked, it retains a large percentage of water, pro- 
portionately reducing its value. Various devices for adulterating sub- , 
stances of this class are resorted to. Chicle gum of good quality is whitish, 
of firm, tenacious, somewhat elastic consistency, yet may be crumbled 
between the fingers; somewhat aromatic and nearly tasteless. It becomes 
plastic on chewing. Examined by Prochozka and Endem.ann, 75 per cent 
was found to be a resin, 9 per cent calcium oxalate (with traces of 
magnesium sulphate). 

Concerning gum chicle, Hyde * states that : 

* * * The best grades are nearly white and clean, but, if overheated, 
a red gum is produced. Consists of an oxidized hydrocarbon, closely related 
to caoutchouc. Softens in the mouth, and is tasteless but aromatic when 
heated. Sp. gr. 1.05. Soluble in chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, benzine, 
and somewhat in alcohol. 

Uses. — Transmission belts, dental surgery, substitute for gutta percha, 
and more especially for chewing-gum. 

According to Rogers, f the trees yield about six to eight pounds 
of gum. Most of the chicle imported into the United States is 
used in making chewing gum. For this purpose, washed and 
dried chicle is mixed with flavoring materials and fragrant oils. 

Dannerth $ gives detailed methods for analyzing the crude ^ 
gum. An idea of its composition may be obtained from the 
following figures (Dannerth) showing the analysis of a sample 
from Yucatan : 

Per cent. 

Aceton-soluble matter (resins) 40.00 

Gutta (and carbohydrates) 17.40 

Proteins 0.60 

Sand and foreign matter 2.30 

Water - 35.00 

Mineral matter (ash) 4.70 

* Hyde, F. S., Solvents, oils, gums, waxes and allied substances (1913), 
page 41. 

t Rogers, A., Industrial chemistry (1915), page 722. ^ 

% Dannerth, F., Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol- 
ume 9 (1917), page 679. 



GUMS 



73 







FIGURE 25. PALAQUIUM AHERNIANUM (KALIPaYA), A SOURCE OF GUTTA-PERCHA. 



Xl. 



74 



PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 



Dannerth says that in 1916 approximately 7,347,000 pounds 
of chicle were imported into the United States. This is equiv- 
alent to about 30,000,000 pounds of chewing gum. 

Genus PALAQUIUM 
PALAQUIUM AHERNIANUM Merr. (Figs. 25-28). Kalipaya. 

Local names: Kalapia, kalipaya (Zamboanga) ; salikut (Surigao) ; sa- 
lukut (Bukidnon). 

GUTTA-PERCHA 

A number of species of this genus produce gutta-percha. 
The Philippine species containing gutta-percha are numerous, but 
in most cases the grade is apparently too poor to make its col- 
lection profitable. The best known of the Philippine gutta-percha 
trees is Palaqium ahernianum. In the Philippines, commercial 
gutta-percha is apparently confined largely, if not entirely, to 
Mindanao and Tawi-Tawi. Here gutta-percha trees formerly 
existed in considerable numbers, but the method of collection 
has resulted in the destruction of the trees until, at the present 
time, the supply in accessible regions has been almost entirely 
depleted. Formerly considerable quantities of gutta-percha 
were exported from the Philippines, but now the amount ex- 
ported is small. In Table 7, are given the exports for the years 
1915 to 1918. 



Table 7.- 


—Amount and value of gutta-percha exported from the Philippine 
Islands for the years 1915 to 1918. 


Year. 


Amount. 


Value. 


1915 


Kilo- 
grams. 

31.650 

29, %2 

14. 359 


Pesos. 
31, 143 
22,898 
11.640 


1916 


1917 


1918 


2,334 2.007 i 









Although the potential supply has been greatly depleted, the 
amount exported would increase considerably if the collectors 
received a higher price. At the present time gutta-percha is 
collected in a desultory manner and sold to Chinese merchants 
at a small price. It then passes through several hands and most 
of it finally reaches Singapore. 

According to Sherman,* who made an extensive study of 



* Sherman, Jr., P. L. The gutta-percha and rubber of the Philippine 
Islands. Bureau of Government Laboratories Publication No. 7 (1003), 
page 7. 



GUMS 



75 




u ^ 



en cQ 



9 -J 



76 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

gutta-percha in the Philippines, the usual method of collection is 
as follows : 

* * * The tree is first cut down and the larger branches at once 
lopped off, the collectors say to prevent the gutta-percha milk from flowing 
back into the small branches and leaves. As has been previously stated 
the milk or latex is contained in the layers of the bark and leaves, in small 
capillary tubes or ducts. . . To open these so as to permit the maximum 
amount of the milk to escape, the natives cut rings in the bark about two 
feet apart along the entire length of the trunk. The milk as* it flows out 
is collected in gourds, coconut shells, large leaves, or in some districts 
in the chopped-up bark itself, which is left adhering to the tree for the 
purpose of acting as a sort of sponge. * * *. After one or two hours, 
when the milk has ceased to flow, the contents of the receptacles are united 
and boiled over a fire for the purpose of finishing the partial coagulation. 
The warm, soft mass is then worked with cold water until a considerable 
amount of the liquid is mechanically inclosed. To further increase the 
weight, chopped bark, stones, etc., are added and the whole mass worked 
into the required shape with most of the dirt on the inside. 

Sherman characterizes this method as very wasteful, since 
the tree usually falls in such a way that it is not possible to 
ring the trunk on all sides. He says: 

* * * As a general thing from one-third to one-half of it is inacces- 
sible to the process of ringing, and all the milk within this portion is 
consequently lost. Even the larger limbs are not deemed worth ringing 
and consequently all the milk in them and in the leaves also goes to waste; 
to this must be added the considerable quantity spilled on the ground 
through carelessness and lack of enough receptacles for every cut or bruise 
from which the milk flows. 

Furthermore, no matter how much cutting is done, all of the 
milk will not flow from the trunk. Sherman collected a 
measured quantity of bark, after no more gutta-percha could 
be collected by the method described above, and extracted all 
of the gutta-percha which it contained. From this he estimated 
that ten times more gutta-percha was left than collected. Per- 
haps an even greater disadvantage of the usual method of 
collection is that it destroys the trees and therefore reduces 
the potential supply. Concerning this point Sherman states: 

It is fortunate that only the full-grown trees contain enough gutta 
percha to repay the work of felling, ringing, etc.; otherwise the complete 
extermination of the gutta-percha forest would only be a matter of a 
year or so. On the other hand the felling of all the trees old enough to 
bear seed works to the same end with a somewhat longer time limit. 

Gutta-percha is cleaned by the Chinese merchants, who ship 
it to Singapore. The account of this process given below is 
taken from a report by W. I. Hutchinson, formerly of the Bu- 
reau of Forestry : 



GUMS 



77 




^2 

< H 



_J 

a o 
:; DO 



U O 
H uj 



5t 



I 

Q O 



H5 

UJ CQ 
UJ 
a: -^ 



78 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

The classification of gutta-percha depends largely on its flexibility, and 
freeness from bark and other forms of dirt. The first class product is 
almost pure white in color, and contains but a small amount of foreign 
matter. The second and third class gum has a pinkish tinge the amount 
of bark, stones, sticks, etc. varying from 20 per cent to 50 per cent or more. 

First class or white gutta is rarely worked over, but the inferior grades 
are almost always subjected to a cleaning process before being shipped, 
on account of the low price that "dirty" gutta commands in the Singapore 
market. 

The first step in the cleaning process is, to cut or tear the balls or 
rolls of gutta into small pieces. If the rolls are large they are often 
placed in hot water and allowed to soften slightly, in order to facilitate 
the separation of the sheets or strips. 

As soon as a large amount of the product has been thus prepared, a 
fire is kindled under a stone oven, in the top of which a large caldron, 
three feet or more in diameter, has been sunk. This caldron is filled two- 
thirds full of water, the "scrap" gutta dumped in, and the whole mass 
allowed to boil until the gum becomes soft and stringy. 

After boiling for a short time the bark contained in the "scrap" colors 
the water a deep blood-red-brown, and stains the softened gutta a pinkish 
tinge. Some of the Chinos add varying quantities of salt to the liquid, 
probably "to set" the color, although they one and all deny that this is 
the reason. 

When the gutta is soft enough to be worked, it is dipped out with a 
bejuco sieve or a shovel, five or six quarts being placed in a heap upon a 
broad flat board. Over this steaming mass a sack is thrown, upon which 
a native, after dipping his feet in cold water, treads, thus causing the 
gum to spread out in a broad, flat sheet. If there is considerable dirt 
present it is usual to work over the mass with a large meat fork or a 
paddle, shaking out as much of the bark, etc., as possible. 

As soon as the forking process is finished, tramping is again resorted 
to, this time without the sack. When the gutta has again been worked 
into a sheet, water is thrown upon it, a native meanwhile brushing it 
vigorously with a stiff broom, and occasionally removing a large piece of 
dirt with his hands. 

While the sheet is being turned over, the board on which it has been 
resting is either brushed or washed clean. 

Tramping is done altogether with the heels, the men maintaining their 
balance by holding to a rope stretched, some five feet above the ground, 
in front of the board. 

After a time when the gutta becomes too hard to be dented by the heel, 
wooden mallets, or sticks similar to those used by the natives in hulling 
rice, are employed for beating. 

At the completion of each tramping or beating operation, a sheet 2 ft. 
wide, 3 ft. or more in length, and 1 in. thick, is obtained, which is folded 
into as small a roll as possible, preparatory to the next tramping. 

The cleaning operation being finished, the sheet is folded into an oblong 
mass, 12 in. long, 6 to 8 in. wide, and 5 in. thick, having a weight of from 
8 to 12 pounds. 

Three men, who receive a peso a day each, two working on the gutta 
and one carrying water, can clean three piculs per day. 

Another method of cleaning gutta-percha is to boil it in 



GUMS 



79 




80 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

water to which petroleum has been added. The petroleum is * 
said to facilitate the removal of dirt and resin. After the 
first boiling the gutta-percha is ground and boiled again with 
water, the process being repeated several times. This method 
apparently results in a high-grade product. 

Gutta-percha is now being grown successfully in plantations 
in a number of tropical countries, but not in the Philippines. 
According to Foxworthy : * 

Successful extraction of gutta from the leaves is done by the Dutch 
and the cultural methods adopted in the plantation are devoted exclusively 
to leaf production. * * * 

No great development of the gutta-percha industry in the ^ 
Philippine Islands can be expected until the trees are grown 
in plantations. 

The most important use of gutta-percha is for the insulation 
of submarine and underground electrical cables. It is also 
utilized considerably in the manufacture of surgical appliances, 
funnels, bottles, and other articles which come in frequent con- 
tact with acids. For these purposes it is valuable on account 
of the ease with which it can be sterilized and its resistance to 
acids. A familiar form is as the outer covering of golf balls. 

Palaquium ahernianum is a tree reaching a height of about 
40 meters and a diameter of 1.5 meters. The leaves are alter- 
nate, pointed at both ends, wider toward the tip than near the • 
base, from 12 to 20 centimeters long, the lower surface velvety 
and with a rusty color. The flowers occur singly or in groups 
of two or three on wart-like growths on the stem. The fruits 
are one-seeded, somewhat rounded, and about 2.5 centimeters 
in diameter. 

This species is apparently confined to Mindanao. < 

Genus PAYENA 
PAYENA LEERII Kurz. (Fig. 29). 

GUTTA-PERCHA 

According to Heyne f this tree produces a very good grade 
of gutta-percha. 

This species has been collected once in Mindanao and once 
in Tawi-Tawi. 



* Foxworthy, F. W., Minor forest products and jungle produce. Gov- 
ernment of British North Borneo, Department of Forestry Bulletin No. 1, 
Part II (1916), page 45. 

t Heyne, K., De Nuttige Planten van Nederlandsch-Indie, Volume 4 
<1917), page 12. 



GUMS 



81 




FIGURE 29. LEAVES AND FRUIT OF PAYENA LEERII, A SOURCE OF GUTTA-PERCHA. 
168837 6 



82 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

Family APOCYNACEAE 

Genus CHONEMORPHA 
CHONEMORPHA ELASTICA Merr. (Figs. 30, 31). LisiD. 

Local names: Goma, lisid (Apayao). 

RUBBER 

In the Philippines there are a number of species of native 
plants which furnish rubber, but the only one known to yield 
rubber of a high grade is Chonemorpha elastica. Concerning 
the collection and quality of rubber from this plant, Sherman 
writes:* 

The Philippine rubber collectors are Samal and Joloano Moros living in * 
Tawi-Tawi and the adjacent coral islands. The method of coagulation 
used by them was undoubtedly learned from the Moros of North Borneo, 
who with the Dyaks collect much of the rubber in that island. It consists 
in first pulling the vine down to the ground so as to be better able to tap 
it along its entire length. The milk is caught in cocoanut shells or leaves, 
and coagulated by pouring into sea water. The coagulation is almost 
instantaneous, and when properly manipulated a large amount of water 
can be mechanically inclosed inside the large balls along with plenty of 
chopped-up bark. The resulting rubber, of which I secured many samples, 
is white, tough, and very elastic so long as it is kept in sea water. On 
exposure to the air it blackens and decomposition slowly sets in. 

The chemical analysis of a sample of this rubber, after much of the 
dirt and water had been removed, resulted as follows: 

Per cent. 

Dirt 3.76 

Rubber 81.57 

Resins 3.16 

Water 11-51 

Formerly this species existed in considerable numbers in 
Basilan and Tawi-Tawi, but the method of collection described^ 
above has naturally lessened the potential supply, and will reduce 
it to such an extent that it will not be profitable to gather the 
rubber. No extensive industry can be expected from the col- 
lection of rubber from this vine. 

Chonemorpha elastica is a large, woody vine. The leaves are 
opposite, thin, rounded or slightly pointed at the base, pointed 
at the tip, 15 to 20 centimeters long, and 8 to 15 centimeters 
wide. The flowers are white, fragrant, and about 3 centimeters 
wide. 

This species has been reported from Cagayan, Apayao, Ben- 
guet, Cavite, Mindanao, Basilan, and Tawi-Tawi. 

* Sherman, Jr., P. L. The gutta-percha and rubber of the Philippine *^ 
Islands. Bureau of Government Laboratories Publication No. 7 (1903), 
page 39. 



GUMS 



83 




FIGURE 30. CHONEMORPHA ELASTICA (LISID), A RUBBER VINE. X*. 



84 



PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 




GUMS 



85 




FIGURE 32. PARAMERIA PHILIPPINENSIS, (DUGTUNG-AHAS) A RUBBER VINE. Xi. 



85 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

r 
Genus PARAMERIA 

PARAMERIA PHILIPPIN ENSIS Radlk. (Figs. 32, 33). Dugtung-ahas. 
Local names: Dugtung-dhas (Rizal) ; ikding nga purau (Igorot) ; ing- 
giu na puti (Bataan) ; karkarsdng (Benguet) ; kuni na puti (Pampanga) ; 
lupi-it (Ilocos Sur) ; parugtong-dhas (Bulacan, Zambales, Rizal) ; partadn 
(Ilocos Sur) ; pulang-pxilang (Zambales) ; sada (Benguet) ; tagulduai 
(Rizal). 

RUBBER 

This species yields rubber which is seemingly of rather poor 
grade. It has never been collected to any great extent. Lo- 
cally the vine is apparently better know^n as a snake medicine 
than as a rubber plant. 

The bark of this species is also used for making rope and for " 
tying rice bundles. 

Parameria pJiilippinensis is a woody vine. The leaves are 
from 7 to 10 centimeters in length, somewhat oval in outline, 
and pointed at both ends. The flowers are fairly small, white, 
and occur in clusters. The fruits are very long and slender; 
the parts between the seeds are very narrow. The seeds are 
about a centimeter in length, sharply pointed at one end, and 
at the other end crowned with numerous white hairs about 2.5 
centimeters long. 

This species is common and is widely distributed in the 
Philippines. 

Family BORRAGINACEAE . * 

Genus CORDIA 
CORDIA MYXA L. Anonang. 

ANONANG GUM 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the bulletin on fibers. ^ 

Locally, a paste is prepared from the fruits. 



GUMS 



87 




FIGURE 33. A PIECE OF DRY BARK FROM PARAMERIA PHILIPPINENSIS, BROKEN AND 
PULLED APART, SHOWING THE RUBBER. 



SEED OILS 

Vegetable oils are found naturally in the seeds of plants, and 
in many species the oil accumulates in considerable quantities. 
Many of these seed oils are edible, while others are useful for 
their medicinal properties or for the manufacture of paints, 
soaps, candles, or other practical purposes. In general, to ob- 
tain these oils, the seeds are first shelled. Although the oil may 
be obtained usually from the shelled seeds by extraction with 
organic solvents such as ether, the more general method is to 
subject the dried, shelled seeds to pressure. This process expels 
the oil, leaving a dried, crushed meal known as oil cake. The 
cake may be used for various purposes, depending upon its com- 
position. If it does not contain injurious substances, it may be 
utilized for cattle food. Sometimes the oil cake is also em- 
ployed as fertilizer or fuel. The expelled oil is filtered and, if 
necessary, subjected to further methods of refinement. 

Edible oils usually contain both solid and liquid fats. Since 
fat is generally recognized as an indispensable constituent of 
human food, these edible oils are consequently substances of con- 
siderable importance. The fatty oils are sometimes called fixed 
oils, because when a drop of one of these oils is placed on wood 
it forms a rather permanent spot which does not evaporate 
readily on exposure to the air. 

Fats (glycerides) consist essentially of glycerol (glycerin) 
combined with certain fatty acids such as oleic, palmitic, and 
stearic. The fats are usually insoluble in water, but dissolve 
readily in organic solvents. When boiled with an alkali solu- 
tion they are decomposed (saponified) and converted into the 
alkali salts (soaps) of the fatty acids present, and glycerol. 
When fats, or edible oils containing fats, are exposed to light 
and air for a considerable length of time, they gradually de- 
compose, forming free acids and other products, which have 
an unpleasant taste and odor. Oil which has been decomposed 
in this manner is said to be rancid. When decomposition has 
begun, the presence of micro-organisms appears to hasten 
these chemical changes. If the dried seeds are prepared prop- 
erly and the oil obtained from them properly preserved, this 
decomposition can be hindered greatly and in some cases prac- 



• 



SEED OILS 89 

tically prevented. This is especially t^ue of coconut oil, as 
Walker * has shown. Edible oils which are rancid and have a 
high acidity are not suited for edible purposes. Such oils are 
used largely for soap making. Since edible oils command a 
much higher price than soap oils, it is evident that when edible 
oils are allowed to become rancid the oil producer suffers con- 
siderable loss. 

Investigation has shown that each particular oil has certain 
definite physical and chemical constants such as specific gravity, 
refractive index, saponification value, iodine value, etc. For a 
given oil, the exact value of these constants would naturally be 
affected by the purity of a particular sample and perhaps other 
factors. The results obtained by determining these various con- 
stants (oil analysis) are very useful in ascertaining the purity 
of a particular sample of a known oil or in endeavoring to iden- 
tify an unknown one. 

Lewkowitsch,t Allen, t Mitchell, § Woodman, || and various 
other authorities give explicit directions for making oil anal- 
yses and explain how the results may be interpreted. 

In recent years the demand for edible oils has been steadily 
increasing. As a result of this tendency, efforts have been made 
to convert oils formerly used for making soaps and candles into 
edible oils, which are considerably more valuable. For this pur- 
pose the method which has proved most successful is known as 
hydrogenation. This process consists in converting fatty oils, 
which are liquid at ordinary temperatures, into hard, solid fats. 
The liquid fats consist largely of olein, which is a combination 
of oleic acid and glycerol (oleic glyceride) ; solid fats consist 
largely of stearin, a combination of stearic acid and glycerol 
(stearic glyceride). The glycerides comprising the hard por- 
tion of an oil contain more hydrogen than those forming the 
soft portion. It is possible, then, to harden the soft portion 
by merely adding a small amount of hydrogen, which is a well- 
known chemical gas. The hydrogenation process has been used 
successfully for preparing oils suitable for the soap and candle 
industries and also for making edible oils. Not only are soft 
oils hardened by hydrogenation, but certain of their oil constants 

* Walker, H. S. The keeping qualities and the causes of rancidity in 
coconut oil. Philippine Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 1 (1906), 
page 117. 

t Lewkowitsch, J. Oils, fats, and waxes. (1915), Volume 1. 

J Allen, Commercial organic analysis. (1910), Volume 2. 

§ Mitchell, C. A. Edible oils and fats, (1918). 

li Woodman, A. G. Food analysis, (1915). 



90 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

• 

are changed considerably. This is especially true of the iodine 
value, which is decreased greatly, and of the specific gravity, 
which is increased. 

The question of the edibility of hydrogenated oils has been 
discussed to some extent in chemical literature.* 

It seems to be generally accepted by those who have investigated the 
matter carefully that the hydrogenated oils have as desirable a degree 
of edibility as the oils from which they are derived. It is even claimed 
that by destroying traces of certain unsaturated bodies thought to be slightly 
toxic in nature, hydrogenation renders the oil better adapted for human 
consumption. 

Concerning the hydrogenation of oils, Thompson f states : 

The combined capacity of the hydrogenating plants of Europe is esti- 
mated for 1914 at 250,000 tons (1,375,000 barrels), which is two or three 
times as much as has ever been treated. These plants are in England, 
Norway, Germany, and France, and are engaged at present chiefly on 
fats for soap and candles. They are hardening linseed, whale, soya-bean, 
and cottonseed oils. 

The great increase in the demand for margarin in Europe, for com- 
pound lard in the United States, and for hard soap all over the civilized 
world has resulted in closely crowding the supply of natural hard fats, 
while liquid oils are relatively abundant. A few years ago strictly edible 
liquid oils seemed to be growing scarcer, but the new scheme of deodoriza- 
tion began to relieve this shortage by lifting the so-called soap oils into 
the edible class. The same process was applied to copra and palm-kernel 
oils, and finally caused a scarcity of soap greases. Hydrogenation now 
promises a further readjustment of conditions by permitting the transfer 
at will of any oil from the liquid to the solid class, and it will bring into 
use some relatively rare oils, and encourage the production of still others. 

In producing oils intended for edible purposes, it is obvious 
that the highest grade of purity is desirable, to obtain which, 
the raw materials, such as seeds or fruits, should be selected 
carefully, and worked up rapidly, in as fresh a condition as 
possible. Special care should be observed to avoid the presence 
of considerable quantities of free fatty acids, since these sub- 
stances tend to decompose the oils and cause rancidity. 

Seed oils which contain toxic substances are naturally unsuited 
for edible purposes. Such oils frequently have properties which 
make them especially valuable for various other purposes, such 
as the manufacture of medicinal preparations, paints, varnishes, 
etc. Certain seed oils, for instance, have unusual drying prop- 
erties which make them useful as paint oils. Linseed oil, which 

* Ellis, C. The hydrogenation of oils (1919), page 323. 

t Thompson, E. W. Cottonseed products and their competitors in 
northern Europe. Department of Commerce, Special Agents Series No. 
89. Part II, Edible oils, 1914, page 26. 



SEED OILS 91 

» 

has the property of absorbing oxygen from the air and forming 
a dry, hard coating, is the most important of the drying oils 
and is employed extensively in making paints and varnishes. 
Philippine lumbang oil is also an excellent drying oil. 

Andes * gives the composition of numerous oil cakes and 
discusses the practical application of these materials as cattle 
foods or fertilizers. 

FAMILY PALMAE 

Genus COCOS 
COCOS NUCIFERA L. (Figs. 34-37). Coconut palm. 

COCONUT OIL 
I 

Coconut oil, which is derived from the fleshy kernels of Cocos 
nucifera, is far more important in the commerce of the Philip- 
pines than all other oils combined. An adequate discussion of 
an agricultural subject such as this would require so much space 
as to be out of place in a publication dealing primarily with forest 
products. As explained in the preface, there are very few im- 
portant oils derived from cultivated plants in the Philippines, 
and so it has seemed advisable to include a short account of 
these in the present bulletin. 

High-grade coconut oil is edible and is employed largely in 
making edible fats and artificial butter (margarine or oleomar- 
garine). The lower and cheaper grades, which usually contain 
a considerable proportion of free fatty acids, are not suitable 
for food and are used principally for making soaps and candles. 
Coconut oil is also used in cooking, as an illuminant, and for 
various other purposes, such as the preparation of lotions, salves, 
and hair cosmetics. The uses of the difi'erent products of the 
coconut palm have been discussed by Miller f and by Brown and 
Merrill.J 

The usual method of obtaining coconut oil is essentially as 
follows : The husks are first removed from the nuts, after which 
they are split by a large knife and the milk poured off". The 
split nuts are next dried in the sun, or by artificial heat, after 
which the dried meat or copra is easily removed from the shells. 
The copra is then ground in a mill, heated, and subjected to 
pressure. The oil cake which remains after the first expression 

* Andes, L. E., and Stocks, H. B., Vegetable fats and oils, (1917), 
page 323. 

t Miller, H. H., Commercial geography, the materials of commerce for 
the Philippines, (1911). 

t Brown, Wm. H., and Merrill, E. D., Philippine palms and palm prod- 
ucts. Bureau of Forestry Bulletin No. 18 (1919). 



92 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

still contains a considerable quantity of oil. In some mills this 
cake is subjected to a second expression by means of hydraulic 
presses after which it contains only a slight percentage of oil. 
The coconut oil obtained is filtered and stored in large tanks, 
ready for domestic use or export. The oil cake, which remains 
after the oil has been expressed, is used as cattle food or, some- 
times, as fertilizer or fuel. 

In recent years the demand and prices for animal fats, such 
as lard and butter, have been steadily growing and it seems 
that there will probably be a permanent shortage of animal 
fats. This has led to a greatly increased use of vegetable fats 
by European and American makers of artificial butter, resulting 
in an unusual demand for these vegetable products. Coconut 
oil, which was formerly utilized largely in making soaps and 
candles, is the most popular ingredient of artificial butter. 

* * * Marseilles, which is the most important soap-manufacturing 
city in Europe, requires annually something like 120,000 tons of fat for this 
industry. Heretofore 40 per cent of this has been coconut oil. But in 
recent years, out of the total production of 85,000 tons of copra oil in 
Marseilles, about 50,000 tons are sold direct as an edible fat, and 10,000 
tons are exported to the Netherlands and elsewhere for mixing with cotton- 
seed oil, peanut oil, and other soft fats to make oleomargarin; this leaves 
but 25,000 tons for the soap trade there, when the normal supply from 
this source has been 48,000 tons.* 

As a result of the increased demand for coconut oil, new co- 
conut plantations are being developed, and it is said that some 
of the margarine manufacturers have acquired plantations and 
oil mills, so that they may control their own raw product. These 
trade conditions in vegetable fats have naturally affected the 
Philippines, which is one of the largest coconut-producing coun- 
tries in the world. 

Formerly, a large proportion of Philippine coconuts were con- 
verted into copra, which was shipped to the United States and 
European countries where the oil was expressed. When copra 
is allowed to stand for a considerable length of time before 
shipment it tends to deteriorate, causing a loss in the quality 
and quantity of the oil. Obviously, in so far as this deteriora- 
tion is concerned, it is more economical to produce the oil in the 
countries where the coconuts are grown. This would logically 
reduce the bulk of the shipments and avoid possible losses due 
to spoiling. The recent shortage of shipping space naturally 

* Brill, H. C. and Agcaoili, F., Philippine oil-bearing seeds and their 
properties : II. Philippine Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 10 
(1915), page 106. 



SEED OILS 



93 




94 



PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 



made it even more advisable to express the oil near the source 
of coconut production. The result of these various conditions 
has been the establishment of a considerable number of oil mills 
in the Philippines. The increase in the coconut-oil business in 
the Philippines is shown very clearly in Table 8, which gives the 
exports of copra and coconut oil for the years 1913 to 1918. 

Table 8. — Amount and value of copra and coconut oil exported from the 
Philippines from 1913 to 1918. 



Year. 


Copra. 


Coconut oil. 


Amount. 


Value. 


Amount. 


1 
Value. 


1913- 


Kilograms. 
82. 219. 363 
87. 344, 695 
139,092,902 
72, 277, 164 
92,180,326 
55.061.736 


Pesos. 
19.091.448 
15. 960. 540 
22. 223. 109 
14. 231. 941 
16. 654. 301 
10. 377. 029 


Kilograms. 
5. 010, 429 
11,943,329 
13, 464. 169 
16.091.169 
45. 198. 415 
115, 280. 847 


Pesos. 
2,292.678 
5,238,366 
5,641,003 
7,851,469 
22,818.294 
63, 328. 317 


1914... 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 





In order to produce high-grade coconut oil, suitable for edible 
purposes, only ripe nuts should be used, and the copra should be 
dried properly. These two important points can hardly be over- 
emphasized. 

Ripe coconuts give a much greater yield of copra and coconut 
oil than green nuts. Coconuts are sometimes, carelessly or in- 
tentionally, cut from the tree before they are fully ripe, causing 
considerable financial loss. Concerning the use of green nuts, 
Walker,t who has made extensive investigations on copra and 
coconut oil, states: 

* * * The percentage of anhydrous copra in the meat of the green 
fruit is 33.7; it rises to 50.1 in that of the "fairly ripe" nuts and increases 
to 53.3 in those marked "dead ripe." * * * Only thoroughly ripe nuts 
(the husks of which have begun to turn brown) should be used, and it is 
often advisable to allow the latter to stand in a dry place for a few weeks 
before they are opened. * * * 

Walker also says that there appears to be a slight increase 
in the proportion of meat, copra, and oil in nuts which have 
been stored, up to a maximum of three months after cutting; 

t Walker, H. S., The coconut and its relation to the production of coconut 
oil. Philippine Journal of Science, Volume 1 (1906), page 71. 

Walker, H. S., The keeping qualities and causes of ran-cidity in coconut 
oil. Philippine Journal of Science, Volume 1 (1906), page 140. 

Walker, H. S., Notes on the sprouting coconut, on copra, and on coconut 
oil. Philippine Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 3 (1908), page 126. 



SEED OILS 



95 




96 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

and that beyond this period, which coincides with the time that 
the sprout makes its appearance, there is a decided decrease in 
the above constituents. 

The quality and value of coconut oil depend largely upon the 
condition of the copra at the time of milling. Copra which has 
not been sufficiently dried becomes moldy. The molds tend to 
decompose, or hydrolyze the fats in the copra, with the result 
that the oil, after expression, contains free, fatty acids, becomes 
rancid quickly, and acquires a bad odor. Walker made a large 
number of experiments to determine the conditions which induce 
this deterioration and the methods by which it could be pre- 
vented. He found that, ordinarily, commercial copra contained 
from 9 to 12 per cent of moisture and that this amount was 
very favorable for the growth of molds. Most of the free acids 
and the accompanying bad odor and taste which are present in 
coconut oil are produced in the copra itself. Walker found that 
no organisms grew, and that there was no change of acidity, in 
a sample of copra containing 4.7 per cent of moisture. The 
remedy is to dry the copra until it contains no more than 5 per 
cent of moisture, which prevents the growth of mold ; and to 
express the oil as soon as possible, thereby avoiding long storage 
in a warm, moist atmosphere. He says that the copra should 
be fresh and be prepared under the best possible conditions of 
drying, and that the oil should be thoroughly dried and filtered 
until absolutely clear. Under these conditions it should be cap- 
able of shipment or storage without noticeable deterioration. 
He believed, contrary to many statements, that the keeping 
qualities of coconut oil prepared in a pure state were superior 
to those of most other vegetable fats and oils. When sufficient 
sugars and albuminoids are left in the oil, if, in other words, 
it is not properly filtered, molds which have been pressed out 
with the oil or, in the case of hot-pressed oil, which enter the 
freshly prepared oil, cause a rapid splitting of the fat and an 
increase in acidity. 

Brill, Parker, and Yates * confirmed Walker's conclusions, 
that the deterioration of copra is due largely to molds and not to 
bacteria, since a moisture content sufficiently high to favor bac- 
terial growth is not found ordinarily in copra and, moreover, 
bacteria cause scarcely any loss even under conditions most 
favorable for their growth. These writers found four molds 
occurring upon coconut meat and moldy copra. The spore 
masses of the four molds differ considerably in color and are 

* Brill, H. C, Parker, H. O., and Yates, H. S., Copra and coconut oil. 
Philippine Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 12 (1917), page 55. 



SEED OILS 



97 




168837 7 



98 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

« 

easily distinguished without the aid of a microscope. These 
molds are given below in the order of their moisture require- 
m.ents; the first one needing the most moisture for growth and 
the last one the least. 

White mold, Rhizopus sp. This mold occurs only on fresh 
meat in a practically saturated atmosphere. It forms loose 
masses of white threads, with many black sporangia. 

Black mold, Aspergillus niger, Van Teigh. A mold which 
occurs in copra with a relatively high moisture content and 
produces black spore bodies, giving the mold a black color. 

Brown or yellow mold, Aspergillus flavus, Link. This species 
is the most common one on moldy copra. The spore masses, 
which are at first greenish yellow, gradually become brown. 

Green mold, Penicillium glauciim Link. This mold produces 
green spores, and occurs commonly on copra, especially if it 
contains a low percentage of moisture. It causes very little 
loss of oil. 

Experiments showed that the brown mold, which occurs on 
copra having a small moisture content, under ordinary condi- 
tions caused much more damage than the others. Under con- 
ditions favorable for its growth, this mold caused in one month 
a loss of 30 to 40 per cent of the total oil. The oil also con- 
tained a considerable amount of free fatty acids and was of 
poor quality. 

According to Brill, Parker, and Yates, copra which has been 
dried to a moisture content of about 6 per cent does not absorb 
water and become moldy unless stored in a saturated atmos- 
phere for prolonged periods of time. 

The Bureau of Science in Manila frequently receives for analy- 
sis samples from the various coconut-oil mills in the Philippines. 
Reports on these analyses made during the latter part of the 
year 1919 have been compiled by the Division of Organic Chem- 
istry. Their results show that Philippine coconut oil has the 

Off 

following average specific gravity (degrees centigrade) '^ = 

0.91461. The fatty acids, calculated as oleic acid, usually aver- 
age 4 to 5 per cent. The results of a large number of analyses 
of copra and copra cake are given in Table 9. These figures, 
based upon general factory conditions throughout the whole ar- 
chipelago, represent percentages as nearly correct as can be 
obtained. 

The figures given in Table 9 are based upon fresh hydraulic 
and expeller cake, and not on cake stored for several months. 
The latter would show an exceedingly high, free fatty acid con- 



SEED OILS 



99 




100 



PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 



tent. In compiling these results, unusual analyses representing 
small quantities of either exceedingly good or poor copra have 
not been included. These exceptional samples have shown a 
percentage of oil as high as 71, or as low as 57.5. 

Table 9. — Analysis of copra and coj)ra cake. 

[Compiled by Division of Organic Chemistry, Bureau of Science.] 



Constants. 


Copra. 


Copra cake. 


Percentage. 


Percentage. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Mini- 
mum. 


Average. 


Maximum. 


Minimum. 


Average. 


Oil 


67.4 


62 


65.5 


Ex- 

pel- 
ler. 


Hy- 
drau- 
lic. 


Ex- 
pel- 
ler. 


Hy- 
drau- 
lic. 


Ex- 
■pel- 
ler. 


Hy- 
drau- 
lic. 


15.5 


6.0 


10.5 


4.0 


12.5 


5.0 


Ash 


r 


5.97 
10.92 
21.44 

9.2 

12.0 


5.78 
7.85 
16.8 
4.0 

4.0 


5.90 
9.5 
19.9 
5.38 

7.2 


Crude fiber 








Protein 








Moisture 


7.0 
6.2 


4.5 
3.0 


5.5 

4.8 


Free fatty acids calculated 














1 



Coconut oil in temperate climates, at ordinary temperatures, is 
a solid fat, but in tropical countries it is usually a thick liquid. 
The high-grade oil is nearly colorless, has a bland taste, and the 
peculiar odor of coconuts. It consists largely of the glycerol 
esters of lauric and myristic acids and contains also a number 
of other fats which are the glycerol esters of still other fatty 
acids, such as caproic, capryllic, capric, and oleic. The exact 
composition of coconut oil is somewhat uncertain. 

The physical and chemical constants of the oil obtained from 
different localities are given by various authorities as follows: 

c, .« ., ri5.5° 0.9259 

Specific gravityj ^g. ^^250 

Solidifying point _ 15.7-23 

Melting point 23-25 

Saponification value 255-260 

Iodine value 8-9.5 

Reichert value 3.5-3.7 

Reichert-Meissl value 6.7-7.5 

Hehner value 88.6-90.5 

Polenske value 16.8 

Refractive index, 60° 1.441 

Butyro refractometer 15.5° 49.1 

Viscosity (seconds at 140°F.) 63.9-64.7 



SEED OILS 101 

Genus ELAEIS 
ELAEIS GUINEENSIS Jacq. OiL PALM. 

PALM OIL 

This species yields two kinds of oil, known as palm oil and 
palm-kernel oil. Palm oil is obtained from the fleshy part of 
the fruit while the palm-kernel oil is expressed from the kernels. 
The uses of palm-kernel oil, for edible and technical purposes, 
are increasing considerably and the consumption of palm oil is 
also increasing. 

Palm oil is used chiefly for the manufacture of soaps and can- 
dles. It consists principally of palmitin and olein. Nordlinger * 

, says that 98 per cent of the solid, fatty acids of palm oil is 
palmitic acid. The fresh oil has an agreeable odor, a bright 
orange color, and a consistency somewhat like that of butter. 
It is used as an edible fat by the natives of Africa. 

Palm-kernel oil has a white or slightly yellow color. It has 
a composition which is quite different from palm oil and resem- 
bles coconut oil in its general composition, but contains a some- 
what lower proportion of the glycerides of the lower fatty acids. 
The better grades are used for making vegetable butter, and the 
lower grades for soap manufacture. 

The oil palm occurs naturally in immense numbers along the 
west coast of Africa. According to Hubert f the annual exports 

^ of oil and kernels from tropical Africa exceed in value forty 
million dollars. The oil palm grows well in the Philippine 
Islands and apparently produces fruit abundantly. It is not 
known to be attacked by any insects, fungi, or bacteria. Large 
plantations of oil palms are now being started in Sumatra and 
the Malay Peninsula. The cultivation of this plant in some 

^ parts of the Philippines would probably be advisable. 

Family HERNANDIACEAE 

Genus HERNANDIA 
HERNANDIA OVIGERA (peltata) L. KoRON-KORON. 

Local names: Koron-koron (Camarines) ; pantog-lobo (Tayabas). 

HERNANDIA OVIGERA OIL 

According to Heyne,$ a fat used in lamps and for making 
candles is obtained from the fruits. 

Hernandia ovigera is a small to medium-sized tree. The 

* Nordlinger, Zeitschrift fiir angewandte Chemie, 1892, page 111. 
t Hubert, P., Le palmier a huile. 
• t Heyne, K., De Nuttige Planten van Nederlandsch-Indie, Volume 2 
(1916), page 177. 



102 



PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 



leaves are alternate, pointed at the tip, and frequently have the 
petiole attached within the margin. The flowers are whitish 
and about 1 centimeter wide. 

This species is distributed from Luzon to Mindanao, but is 
apparently not common. 

Family MORINGACEAE 

Genus MORINGA 
MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. Malunggai or Horse-radish TREE. 

Local names: Arnnggdi (Pangasinan) ; balunggdi (Cuyo Islands); ka- 
lammiggdi (Misamis) ; kahinggdi (Camarines) ; kamalunggdi (Mindoro) ; 
kamalunggi (Pampanga) ; malugdi (Culion Island) ; malunggai (Tarlac, 
Bulacan, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Manila, Batangas, Tayabas, 
Mindoro, Capiz, Zamboanga) ; marnnggdi (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Abra) ; 
maronggoi (Zambales). 

BEN OIL 

The root of this species has a taste somewhat like that of 
horse-radish and in India is eaten by Europeans as a substitute 
for it. The wood, when fresh, has a like taste and odor. This 
species yields seeds from which ben oil is obtained. 

The oil is said to be used for salads and culinary purposes, 
and to equal the best Florence oil as an illuminant. 

According to the bulletin of the Imperial Institute:* 

The oil is particularly valuable for ointments since it can be kept for 
almost any length of time without undergoing oxidation. This property, 
together with the absence of colour, smell and taste, renders it peculiarly 
adapted for use in the "enfleurage" process of extracting perfumes. 

The seeds of Moringa oleifera consist of about 8 per cent of 
husks and 92 per cent of kernels. The shelled kernels yield 
about 36 per cent of ben oil, which is obtained by expression. 
Table 10 shows the constants of cold- and hot-pressed oil obtained 
from Nigerian ben seeds. f Analyses of the oil cake which is 
left after expelling the oil from the ben seeds are given in 
Table 11. 

Table 10. — Constants of ben oil. 



Constants. 



Crude 

cold- 
pressed 
oil from 
northern 



Crude 
hot- 
pressed 
oil from 
northern 



Nigeria. I Nigeria. 



Specific gravity 

Acid value 

Saponification value .. 
Unsaponiflable matter. 
Iodine value 



0. 9018 
49.71 
179. 20 

1.67 
100. 30 



0. 8984 
100.50 
178. 70 

2.69 

88.00 



* Bulletin of the Imperial Institute. Volume 2 (1904), page 118. 
t Bulletin of the Imperial Institute. Volume 6, 1908, page 359. 



SEED OILS 
Table 11. — Analysis of oil cake from hen seeds. 



103 



Constituents. 



Hot- 
pressed 

cake, 
northern 
Nigeria. 



Cake 

from 

Jamaica 

seed. 



Moisture 

Albuminoids 

Other nitrogenous substances 

Fat 

Fibre 

Ash 

Other non-nitrogenous substances 



Per cent. 

5.96 

24.12 

34.81 

11.27 

4.32 

5.66 

13.86 



Per cent. 

7.15 

21.51 

24.56 

11.27 



Ben oil consists largely of the glycerides of oleic, palmitic, 
and stearic acids. It also contains a solid acid of high melting 
point. 

Moringa oleifera is a small tree 8 meters or less in height, 
with very soft, white wood and corky bark. The leaves are 
alternate, 25 to 50 centimeters long, and usually thrice pinnate. 
There are three to nine leaflets on the ultimate pinnules. The 
leaflets are 1 to 2 centimeters long. The pod is 15 to 30 centi- 
meters long, pendulous, three-angled, and nine-ribbed. The 
seeds are three-angled and winged on the angles. 

This species is widely distributed in the Philippines and in 
the tropics generally. It grows rapidly even in poor soil and is 
but little aff"ected by drought. 

Family PITTOSPORACEAE 



Genus PITTOSPORUM 
PITTOSPORUM PENTANDRUM (Blanco) Merr. 



MAMALIS. 



Local names: Balingkaudyan (Antique) ; basuit (Abra) ; bolongkoyan, 
sabodgon (Guimaras Island) ; darayau (Palawan) ; dili (Nueva Vizcaya; ; 
lasuit, pasguik (Benguet) ; mamales (Benguet, Rizal) ; mamdlis (Panga- 
sinan, Bataan, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna) ; opldi (Iloko) ; parlg- 
anto-an (Cebu) ; taliu (Zambales). 

MAMALIS OIL 

Concerning the oil from this species, Bacon * writes : 

* * * The fruits are quite small, and there is considerable labor 
involved in gathering them. One tree yielded 16 kilos of fruit which after 
grinding gave 210 cubic centimeters of an oil of pleasant odor by distilla- 
tion with steam. The crude oil boiled from 153° to 165° and after being 
washed with alkalies and distilled over sodium, had the following properties : 



* Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils, III. 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 4 (1909), page 118. 



Philippine 



104 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

« 

Boiling point, 155° to 160° (principally 157° to 160°); specific gravity, 

^^°= 0.8274; N?^°= 1.4620; A^°=40.40. 

These properties leave little doubt but that this oil consists principally 
of the same dihydroterpene that is found in the higher boiling portions 
of the oil of the ordinary petroleum nut. 

PittosporuTYi pentandrum is a tree reaching a height of 20 
meters and a diameter of about 50 centimeters. It is, however, 
usually much smaller than this. The leaves are alternate, 
pointed at both ends, about 10 centimeters long and less than 2 
centimeters in width. The flowers are small, white, fragrant, 
and are crowded on small flowering branches. The fruits are 
about a centimeter long and contain a number of seeds. 

This species is common and widely distributed in the Phil- 
ippines from Luzon to Mindanao, especially in thickets and 
second-growth forests. Experiments have shown that it grows 
vigorously in cultivation. 

PITTOSPORUM RESINIFERUM Hemsl. (Fig. 38). Petroleum Nut. 

Local names: Abkol, ahkel, langis (Benguet) ; dingo (Mountain Prov- 
ince); sagdga (Abra). 

PETROLEUM-NUT OIL 

The fruits of this species are known in the Philippines as 
petroleum nuts because of the fancied resemblance of the odor 
of the oil to that of petroleum and because even the green fresh 
fruits will burn brilliantly when a match is applied to them. 

The chemical properties of the oil have been investigated by 
Bacon.* He found that the oil from the petroleum nut was 
very interesting, as it contained a dihydroterpene, CiqHjs, and 
also considerable quantities of normal heptane, which had only 
once before been found in nature, occurring in the digger pine 
(Piniis sabiniana Dougl.) of California. 

In working up the various lots of Pittosporurn fruits, considerable dif- 
ferences were noted in the proportion of heptane and dihydroterpene found 
in the oil, and the season and degree of ripeness of the fruits undoubtedly 
play a considerable role in this respect. 

The first lot of nuts was obtained from Baguio, Benguet, in the autumn 
of 1907. One kilo of whole, fresh nuts gave 52 grams of oil on a press. 
The residue ground up and again pressed yielded an additional 16 grams 

of oil; specific gravity=0.883; N^ =1.4577. It was not possible to de- 
termine the optical rotation. The oil is quite sticky, and in a thin layer 
rapidly becomes resinous. In an open dish it burns strongly, with a sooty 
flame. It distills unchanged up to 165°, then with decomposition to give 

* Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils. III. Philippine 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 4 (1909), page 115. 



SEED OILS 



105 






FIGURE 3S. PITTOSPORUM RESINIFERUM (PETROLEUM NUT), THE SOURCE OF OIL OF 

PETROLEUM NUTS. Xg. 



106 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 



a resin oil. The oil distilling from 100° to 165° is colorless, with an orange- 
like odor; specific gravity, "^^ =0.7692; A"^": =+3 
tillations the following fractions were obtained: 



like odor; specific gravity, "^^ =0.7692; A"^": =+37°.0. By two careful dis 



Fraction 
(degrees.) Grams. 

(1) 98-103 41 

(2) 103-110 18 

(3) 110-120 21 

(4) 120-140 12 

(5) 140-150 7 

(6) 150-155 47 

(7) 155-160 49 

Fraction No. 1 had a pleasant odor recalling oranges, and the following ^ 

properties: specific gravity, ^^'=0.6831; N^„=1.3898; optical rotation=0. 

30 
Fraction No. 7 had a turpentine-like odor. Specific gravity, - =i0.8263, 

N ^=1.4630. 

The properties of fraction No. 1 leave little doubt of the identity of this 
compound with normal heptane. 

A second lot of petroleum nuts was obtained in December, 1908, from 
one of the upper ridges of Mount Mariveles, Bataan Province. One tree 
gave 15 kilos of fruits, which by pressure yielded 800 cubic centimeters 
of oil. The residue ground up and distilled with steam yielded 73 cubic 
centimeters more. This oil distilled in steam contained no heptane, show- 
ing that probably all the latter is in the oil cavities immediately surround- 
ing the seeds, and that the pulp of the fruit contains only resins and the ^ 
higher boiling portions of the oil. It was also noted that the leaves, 
branches, bark, wood, and in fact, all parts of the tree are distinctly resinif- 
erous and have the same pleasant, orange-like odor as the fruits. * * * 

Pittosporum resiniferum is a tree reaching a height of 25 to 
30 meters, although in many cases it fruits when not over 6 
to 12 meters high. It has fragrant, white flowers, about 1.3 ^ 
centimeters long, which are borne in clusters on the stem. The 
leaves are smooth, pointed at both ends, and usually between 
8 and 15 centimeters in length. The fruits are about 3 cen- 
timeters long. 

This species is not very abundant in any part of the Islands, 
but is widely distributed and usually found on high mountain 
ridges. 

Family LEGUMINOSAE 

Genus ARACHIS 
ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L. Mani or Peanut. 

PEANUT OIL 

This plant is rather extensively grown in the Philippines and *■ 
yields the edible nuts known as peanuts or ground nuts, from 



SEED OILS 107 



» 



which arachis oil (peanut or ground-nut oil) is obtained by ex- 
pression. High-grade arachis oil is nearly colorless and has a 
pleasant taste. It is edible and is used as a salad oil, especially 
as a cheaper substitute for olive oil. The lower grades are used 
for making soaps or for burning. 

Very little peanut oil is produced in the Philippine Islands, 
but its manufacture on a large scale is well worth consideration, 
as in certain other countries it is an article of considerable com- 
mercial importance. 

According to Thorpe,* the total quantity of arachis nuts pro- 
duced in the world is approximately 350,000 tons per year. 
, Large quantities of these nuts are used in France, Austria, 
Germany, and the United States. Although about 50,000 tons 
of peanuts are grown yearly in the United States, the demand 
is greater than the supply and consequently large quantities of 
nuts are imported. 

Concerning the manufacture of peanut oil, Lewkowitsch f 
states that the nuts are shelled by special machinery. The ker- 
nels, which contain 43 to 45 per cent of oil, are ground and the 
oil expressed from the ground material by hydraulic pressure, 
two and sometimes three times. The first expression is carried 
out at the ordinary temperature, the second at about 31° C, 
and the third at about 52° C. 
^ The cake serves as an excellent cattle food, as it contains 
the highest amount of proteins of all known oil cakes ; moreover, 
these proteins are more easily digested than those of other cakes. 

Thorpe t states that the average composition of the nuts ob- 
tained from various places is as follows : 

Per cent. 

Arachis oil 38 to 50 

• Water 4.6 to 12.8 

Albuminoids 26 to 31 

Carbohydrates 5 to 19 

Fibre 1.1 to 4.1 

Ash 1.6 to 3.0 

Mitchell t gives the following constants for peanut oil : 

Specific gravity 0.917 to 0.9256 

Reichert-Meissl value 0.48 

Hehner value 95.5 

Iodine value 92 to 100.8 

The principal fats which peanut oil contains are olein, linolin, 
palmitin, stearin, arachidin, and lignocerin. 

* Thorpe, E., Dictionary of applied chemistry. Volume 1, page 286. 
t Lewkowitsch, J., Oils, fats, and waxes. Volume 2, page 304. 
t Mitchell, C. A., Edible oils and fats. Page 58. 



108 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

Genus PACHYRRHIZUS 
PACHYRRHIZUS EROSUS (L.) Urb. SiNGKAMAS. 

Local names: Hingkamds (Cavite) ; kamdh (Zambales) ; kamds (Ilocos 
Norte and Sur, Abra, Pangasinan) ; lakamds (Pangasinan) ; sikamds (Pam- 
panga) ; sinkamds or singkamas (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Cagayan, Panga- 
sinan, Tarlac, Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal, Manila, Laguna, Tayabas, Cavite, 
Batangas, Camarines, Albay, Mindoro, Capiz) ; tikamds (Cuyo Island). 

SINGKAMAS OIL 

Heyne * says that Greshoff found in the seeds 38.4 per cent 
of a colorless, limpid oil. 

Pachyrrhizus erosus is a rather coarse, somewhat hairy, her- 
baceous vine. The leaves are compound with three leaflets, ^ 
which are up to 15 centimeters in length and 20 centimeters in 
width. The flowers are pale blue or blue and white, 2 to 2.5 
centimeters long, and borne in racemes which are up to 45 cen- 
timeters in length. The pods are about 10 centimeters long, 
10 to 12 millimeters wide, flat, hairy, and contain from eight 
to ten seeds. The roots are large, fleshy, turnip-shaped. They 
are either eaten raw or prepared in a variety of ways. The 
young fruit is sometimes eaten as a vegetable. 

This species is a native of tropical America, but is now widely 
distributed in the tropics. It is thoroughly naturalized in the 
Philippines and is common in thickets. It is also extensively 
cultivated. ^ 

Genus PITHECOLOBIUM 
PITHECOLOBIUM DULCE (Roxb.) Benth. KAMACHfLE. 

KAMACHILE OIL 

A description and the local names of this species are given 
in the bulletin on edible plants. 

Concerning the oil yielded by the fruit of this species Kesava- < 
Menon f states : 

* * * The fruit * * * contains a number of large seeds each 
of which is enveloped in a sweet, whitish pulp. The seeds are black, 
shiny, partly immersed in an arillus, and replete with an edible pulp 
of an yellowish white colour. The pulp on extraction with ether yielded 
18.22 per cent of a yellowish white oil, with a beany smell, which solid- 
ified at a temperature of 15° C. (=13.20 per cent calculated on the 
whole seed). The expressed oil is yellowish white, and very viscous, 
and "stearine" deposits on standing. The kernels form 72.4 per cent of 
the seed. Church (Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, Watt, 
Vol. VI, Part I, page 282) states that 100 parts of bean contain: water, 

t Heyne, K., De Nuttige Planten van Nederlandsch-Indie, Volume 2 
(1916), page 346. ' 

t Kesava-Menon, A., Some Indian oils and fats. Journal of the Society 
of Chemical Industry, Volume 29 (1910), No. 24, page 1431. 



SEED OILS 109 



» 



13.5 parts; albuminoids, 17.67 parts; starch, 41.4 parts; fatty matter, 

17.1 parts; fibre, 7.8 parts; ash, 2.6 parts. 

Physical arid chemical characteristics of Pithecolobium dulce — 

Fat: Specific gravity (d 100/100) = 0.9106; (d 100/15) = 0.8756. 

Acid value, 63.9. Saponification value, 205.9. Reichert-Meissl value, 8.41. 

Titration no. of insol. vol. acids, 1/10 KOH, 0.34. Iodine value, 56.60. 

Unsaponifiable matter per cent, 1.17. Butyro-refractometer at 25° C. 

"Degrees," 69.5; at 40° C, 62.0. 

Fatty acids: Per cent, 87.64. Melting point, 44.7° C. Iodine value, 

57.59; neutralization value, 198.7. Mean molecular weight, 282.2. 

Genus PONGAMIA 
PON GAM I A PIN NAT A (P. mitis) (Linn.) Merr. (Fig. 39). Bani. 

^ Local names: Balobalo (Zamboanga, Basilan) ; balik-balik (Tagalog) ; 
baluk-baluk, balutbalut, magit (Cotabato) ; baobao (Agusan) ; bdni (Pan- 
gasinan, Zambales, Pampanga, Bataan, Cotabato) ; kadei (Tayabas) ; ma- 
rokbarok (Bikol) ; salingkngi (Zamboanga). 

PONGAM OIL 

The seeds of this tree yield a red-brown, thick oil known as 
pongam oil. It is employed for illuminating and medicinal pur- 
poses and should also be useful for the manufacture of soap and 
candles. According to Lewkowitsch * the oil has the following 
constants : 

Specific gravity at 40° 0.9352 

Saponification value 178.0 

Iodine value 94.0 

Refraction index at 40° (butyro refractometer 

degrees) 78.0 

Concerning this oil Watt f says : 

According to Lepine {Pharm. Jonrn. {3) XL., 16), the seeds yield 27 
per cent of a yellow oil, having a sp. gr. of 0.945 and solidifying at 8°C. 
It has been examined by the authors of the Phannacographia Indica, who 
'write: "The oil which we have examined (called Hoicge oil in Mysore), 
and expressed purposely from fresh seeds, was thick, of a light orange- 
brown colour, and bitter taste. The sp. gr. at 18° C was 0.9458. It yielded 
93.3 per cent of fatty acids melting at about 30°. With sulphui-ic acid 
it became yellow with orange streaks, and when stirred formed an orange- 
red mixture, which, after standing, became yellow. With nitric acid it 
formed an orange emulsion. With the elaidin test it remained liquid for 
several hours, and was of the colour and consistence of honey after two 
days. The fresh oil deposits solid white fats if kept at the temperature 
of 16° for a few weeks, and the clear oil then has the specific gravity of 
0.935. The bitter principle of the oil appears to reside in a resin, and 
not in an alkaloid as is the case with Margosa oil. 

Pongamia pinnata is a tree reaching a height of 15 meters 



* Lewkowitsch, J., Oils, fats, and waxes, Volume 2 (1915), page 498. 
t Watt, G., A dictionary of the economic products of India, Volume 6 
(1892), page 323. 



110 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

« 

and a diameter of about 45 centimeters. The leaves are alter- 
nate and compound with three to seven leaflets, which are 
smooth, pointed at the apex, usually rounded at the base, and 7 
to 10 centimeters in length. The flowers are purplish, about 
1.5 centimeters in length, and borne in racemes. The pods are 
somewhat flattened, somewhat oval in outline, and with a single 
seed. 

This species is distributed from northern Luzon to southern 
Mindanao. 

Genus TAMARINDUS 
TAMARINDUS INDICA L. SaMPALOK. 

TAMARIND-SEED OIL , 

A description, figure, and the local names of this species are 
given in the bulletin on edible plants. 

Lewkowitsch * says that in famine times the seeds are univer- 
sally eaten by the poorer classes of India, and that they yield 
4.5 per cent of oil which has the following constants: 

Saponification value 183 

Iodine value 87.1 

Hefter f states that the seeds yield 15 per cent of oil. 
According to Watt : t 

An oil of an amber colour, free of smell and sweet to the taste, is 
prepared from the seeds by expression. This oil appears to have been 
brought to notice for the first time in 1856, when a Captain Davies sent * 
a sample to the Agri. -Horticultural Society of India, with the remark 
that it was, in his opinion, suitable for culinary purposes. The Society's 
Sub-Committee reported favourably on the oil, and suggested that it 
might be found useful in the preparation of varnishes and paints, as well 
as for burning in lamps. A member of the Committee remarked that it 
was occasionally employed in Bengal for making a varnish to paint idols, 
and for finishing kurpa cloth, but that it was very little appreciated. < 
The Sub-Committee further noticed that the sample submitted to them 
had an odour of linseed-oil, but Captain Davies explained that this was 
not a property of the oil itself, but was due to the mill in which it had 
been expressed, having been one ordinarily employed for making linseed- 
oil (Agri.-Hort. Soc. Ind., Journ., 1885). The authors of the Pharmaco- 
graphia Indica have examined it, and write, "Braunt states that the seeds 
contain 20 per cent of a thickly fluid oil with an odour of linseed, and 
classes it with the non-drying oils. By expression from the dry seeds, 
we were unable to obtain any oil, and by solvents the yield was only 3.9 
per cent. The oil possessed greater siccative properties than boiled linseed 
oil." The subject appears to be well worthy of further investigation, 

* Lewkowitsch, J., Chemical technology and analysis of oils, fats, and 
waxes. Volume 2 (1914), page 238. ^ 

t Hefter, G., Technologie der Fette und Ole (1908), Volume 2, page 466. 

J Watt, G., Dictionary of the economic products of India, Volume 6, Part 
3 (1893), page 405. 



SEED OILS 



HI 




FIGURE 39. PONGAMIA PINNATA (BAND, THE SOURCE OF PONGAM OIL. Xh 



112 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

the more so from the contradictory nature of the literature regarding it, 
for the seeds might be obtained in any quantity and cheaply, should the 
oil prove of commercial value. 

Family SIMARUBACEAE 

Genus SAMADERA 

SA MADERA INDICA Gaertn. Manunggal. 

Local names: Malunggdl (Mindoro) ; manunggal (Cagayan, Lanao). 

MANUNGGAL OIL 

Heyne * says that Greshoff reports an oil content of one-third 
of the weight of the seed kernels. Heyne also states that the 
plant bears fruits in three years. 

Samadei'a indica is a tree reaching a height of about 10 meters 
and a diameter of about 20 centimeters. The leaves are alter- 
nate, leathery, somewhat oval, pointed at both ends, and from 
12 to 20 or more centimeters in length. The fruits are about 
6 centimeters long, flattened, and inequilateral. 

This species is distributed from Luzon to Mindanao and Pal- 
awan, but is apparently rare. 

Family BURSERACEAE 

Genus CANARIUM 

Several species of the genus Canarium bear edible nuts which 
have a fine flavor and yield a valuable oil. The nuts are known 
as pili nuts. The largest are apparently produced by Canarium * 
ovatum and these nuts are sold commercially as pili, 

CANARIUM OVATUM Engl. (Fig. 40). PlLL 

Local names: Andnggi (Sorsogon) ; basidd, liputi, pilduai (Tayabas) ; 

pildui (Polillo) ; pili (Tayabas, Polillo, Camarines, Sorsogon, Samar, Su- 
rigao) . 

PILI NUTS AND PILI-NUT OIL * 

The nuts of this species are very rich in oil, and when roasted 
have a delicious flavor. They are served in the same manner as 
almonds, and by many are considered superior to the latter. 
The nuts are also used considerably in the making of confections. 
In Camarines, the roasted kernels are used to adulterate choc- 
olate. The uncooked nuts have a purgative effect. In 1913, 
1,186,173 kilograms of pili nuts were exported from Manila. 
The oil obtained from the nuts of Canarium ovatum is sweet, 
and suitable for culinary purposes. The fruits are 6 to 7 cen- 
timeters in length and consist of hard, thick-shelled, triangular 
nuts surrounded by a small amount of pulp. This pulp, which 

* Heyne, K., De Nuttige Planten van Nederlandsch-Indie, Volume 3 
<1917), page 23. 



SEED OILS 



113 




FIGURE 40. CANARIUM OVATUM (PfLI). THE SOURCE OF PiLl-NUT OIL. 
168837 8 



114 



PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 



is edible when cooked, also contains an oil which is occasionally- 
extracted locally and used for lighting and in cooking. Its 
chemical properties have not been investigated. 

Mr. E. Tabat, who kept a record of the yield of a number of 
trees, found that an average tree produced 33 kilos of nuts in 
one year. The cost of gathering the nuts was 2.5 centavos per 
kilo, and of husking them, 1.5 centavos per kilo. 

Mr. Tabat tried three methods of removing the soft covering 
of the nuts and found that the best method was to place them 
in fresh water for at least 24 hours, after which the soft part 
was easily removed. If the fresh nuts were put in sacks and 
piled in a corner and the soft covering allowed to rot, many of ^ 
the nuts were spoiled, apparently by the heat produced by the 
decay of the soft, outer coverings. This method also resulted 
in the loss of sacks. He found it inadvisable to remove the 
soft covering by means of hot water, as this frequently cooked 
the nuts, thus greatly impairing their keeping qualities. 

Brill and Agcaoili * analyzed what they called long and short 
varieties of pili nuts from Canarmm pachyphyllum. The results 
are recorded in Tables 12 and 13. 

Table 12. — Composition of the kernels of pili nuts. 





Long. 


Short. 


Moisture .. . 


Per cent. 
2.79 
74.39 
12.06 
0.88 
0.45 
4.33 
2.15 
2.97 


< 
Per cent. 

2.90 

72.53 

n.88 

0.66 
1.35 
5.11 
2.42 
3.15 


Fat 


Protein (N -x 6. 25) 


Sucrose . . .... 




Starch (by difference) . 


Crude fiber... 


Ash 





Table 13. — Chemical constants of pili oil. 



Long. 



Short. 



Specific gravity at 30° C 

Butyro refractometer reading at 30° C 

Iodine value (Hanus) 

Reichert-Meissl value 

Saponification number 

Free fatty acids (oleic) per cent. 

Acid value cc. N/lO NaOH . 



0.9067 


0. 9067 


54-54.2 


54-54. 2 


61.25 


59.61 


3.3 


2.2 


192.6 


186.8 


7.62 


8.84 


2.70 


3.13 



* Brill, H. C, and Agcaoili, F., Philippine oil-bearing seeds and their « 
properties: II. Philippine Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 10 (1915), 
page 110. 



SEED OILS 115 

This species, like Canarium luzonicum, yields Manila elemi, 
for a discussion of which see Cmiarium luzonicum, in the section 
on resins. 

Canarium ovatu^n is a tree reaching a height of about 20 
meters and a diameter of about 40 centimeters. The leaves are 
alternate and compound with opposite leaflets, which are smooth, 
rounded at the base, pointed at the tip, and from 10 to 20 centi- 
meters in length. The flowers are greenish, fragrant, and about 
a centimeter long. 

This species is very abundant in southern Luzon. 

Family MELIACEAE 

Genus CHISOCHETON 
CHISOCHETON CUM I NGI AN US Harms. (Fig. 41). Balukanag. 

Local names: Balita (Bukidnon sub-province;) balukanag (Laguna, 
Camarines, Catanduanes Island) ; batudkan (Benguet, Union) ; bayongboi 
(Nueva Vizcaya) ; diualat (Tayabas) ; dudos (Albay) ; kalimotdin (La- 
guna) ; kdto (Bataan) ; makalsa (Negrito in Cagayan) ; malakaldd (Ne- 
gros Oriental) ; maraviabolo (Cagayan) ; pakalsa (Cagayan) ; salagin 
(Laguna). 

BALUKANAG OIL 

This species produces a nut averaging 3 centimeters in length 
and 2.5 centimeters in width. The nut contains a considerable 
percentage of non-drying oil. It is reported to have been, before 
petroleum became common, the chief source of illuminating oil 
in certain regions. The nuts have rather hard shells which, 
according to Brill and Agcaoili,* constitute about 60 per cent 
of the total weight of the seed and are somewhat difficult to 
separate from the meat. They found that 1 kilogram of shelled 
nuts after drying weighed 698 grams, and yielded by extraction 
with petroleum ether 308 grams, or approximately 31 per cent 
of the fresh kernels, of a reddish-brown oil which had the specific 
gravity 0.9203 at 15.5° C. 

The dried kernels had the following composition: 

Per cent. 

Fat (by extraction) 44.12 

Protein (N x 6.25) 9.00 

Ash 3.19 

By expression of the dried kernel. Brill and Agcaoili obtained 
35.56 per cent of balukanag oil. According to them, the oil has 
a rancid odor, is non-drying, and has purgative properties. The 
laxative effect of 5 parts of this would be approximately equiva- 

* Brill, H. C. and Agcaoili, F., Philippine oil-bearing seeds and their 
properties: 11. Philippine Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 10 (1915), 
page 107. 



\IQ PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

< 

lent to one part of castor oil. These writers state that the 
soap-making quality of this oil was tested by the Bureau of 
Science with gratifying results and that the oil is now being 
used by at least one firm in Manila in this industry. 
Balukanag oil has the following chemical constants: 

Specific gravity at 15° C 0.9203 

Specific gravity at 30° C 0.9188 

Butyro refractometer (reading at 30° C.) 60-61 

Iodine value (Hanus) 80.78 

Reichert-Meissl value 7.34 

Saponification number 192.02 

Free fatty acids (oleic) per cent.... 3.98 

Acid value cc. N/10 KOH... 7.06 , 

Chisocheton cumingianus is a tree reaching a height of 20 
meters and a diameter of 45 centimeters. The flowers are fairly 
numerous, on long inflorescences. The leaves are compound 
with leaflets about 20 to 25 centimeters in length. The fruit 
is pear-shaped and when dry is about 8 centimeters in diameter. 
It contains nuts averaging 3 centimeters in length and 2.5 centi- 
meters in width. 

This species is distributed from northern Luzon to Mindanao. 

CHISOCHETON PENTANDRUS (Blco.) Merr. (Fig. 42). Katong- 

MACHIN. 
Local names: Igiu (Tayabas) ; kdtong-bakdlau, malatumbdga, kdtong- 
machin (Bataan) ; pamalat'dngen (Cagayan). , 

KATONG-MACHIN OIL 

Oil extracted from the fruit of this species is used locally as 
a hair cosmetic. 

Chisocheton pentandrus is a tree reaching a height of 30 
meters and a diameter of 40 centimeters. The leaves are al- 
ternate and compound. The leaflets are opposite, pointed at * 
the tip, rounded at the base, and 7 to 14 centimeters in length. 
The flowers are small and are borne on long-branched inflores- 
cences. The fruits are round, red, hairy, and about 1.5 centi- 
meters in diameter. 

This species is distributed throughout the Archipelago. 

Genus XYLOCARPUS 
XYLOCARPUS MOLUCCENSIS Lam. PlAGAU. 

PIAGAU OIL 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the bulletin on mangrove swamps. 

Heyne * says that, according to Wijs, the seeds contain 40 to 



* Heyne, K., De Nuttige Planten van Nederlandsch-Indie, Volume 3 
(1917), page 45. 



SEED OILS 



117 




FIGURE 41. CHISOCHETON CUMINGIANUS (BALUKANAG), THE SOURCE OF BALUKA- 

NAG OIL. Xi. 



118 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

60 per cent of solid fat with a strong, bitter taste, which can 
be removed by prolonged boiling with water. The odor is 
slightly acid and somewhat aromatic. 
According to Watt : * 

The seeds yield, on expression, a whitish semi-solid fat. This remains 
fluid only at high temperatures. It is used as a hair-oil, and also for 
burning purposes. 

Family EUPHORBIACEAE 

Genus ALEURITES 
TUNG OIL AND LUMBANG OILS 

This genus contains a number of species with nuts which 
yield a valuable oil. Perhaps the best known of these oils is 
Chinese wood oil or tung oil. This is derived from at least two 
Chinese species of the genus, Aleurites fordii Hemsley and A. 
montana Wilson, which do not occur in the Philippines. Tung 
oil, which has properties quite similar to those of the Philippine 
lumbang oils, has been investigated quite extensively, and for 
this reason a short account of this important oil has been in- 
cluded. 

Tung oil is used in large quantities for the preparation of 
paints, varnishes, linoleum, and for other similar purposes. 
According to Brill and Agcaoili f 5,000,000 gallons of Chinese 
wood oil were imported from China into the United States in 
1911. These writers state that 40,000 trees have been planted 
in the southern states by American paint concerns. 

As regards the importance of tung oil, the Oil, Paint, and 
Drug Reporter % states : 

* * * In recent years this oil has revolutionized the varnish industry 
of the United States, for it has made possible the manufacture of a quick- 
drying varnish that is less liable to crack than that made from kauri gum. 
Tung oil has also been found of special value in waterproof priming for 
cement. * * * 

EXTRACTION METHODS 

The Chinese methods employed for extracting the oil, although crude, 
are effective. After the seeds are removed from the husks they are 
placed in a circular stone trough, where they are crushed by a stone roller 
drawn by a buffalo, cow, or ass. The pulverized meal is partially roasted 
in shallow pans, then steamed over boiling water, the product meantime 

* Watt, G., Dictionary of the economic products of India, Volume 2 
(1889), page 141. 

t Brill, H. C. and Agcaoili, F., Philippine oil-bearing seeds and their 
properties: II. Philippine Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 10 
(1915), page 113. 

% Oil, Paint, and Drug Reporter, Volume 91, February 12, 1917, page 
48L. 



< 



SEED OILS 



119 




FIGURE 42. CHISOCHETON PENTANDRUS (KATONG-MACHfN), THE SOURCE OF KATONG- 

MACHfN OIL. Xh 



120 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

« 

being placed in wooden vats fitted with wicker bottoms. The nuts are 
next placed in steel frames with straw as an outside container. The 
frames are arranged on edge in a press and pressure is applied. This is 
usually accomplished by means of a system of wedges which are driven in 
one after another by means of a huge battering-ram until the brown, 
watery, and odoriferous oil is crushed out into the vat below. As a rule 
the oil is then slightly heated and strained through a coarse grass cloth. 
(If the heating process is carried too far the oil becomes dark brown 
instead of retaining its desired light-yellow color.) The product is then 
placed in wicker baskets lined with varnished paper and is ready for ship- 
ment. As a rule the oil yield is about 40 per cent of the original weight 
of the kernels. The refuse matter, which is in the form of cakes, is used 
as a fertilizer. 

In the vicinity of Hankow the native dealers allow the oil to again 
precipitate, drawing off the clear liquid and selling it to the foreign export- 
ing firms. The residue is then sold to small dealers in Wuchang and 
Hanyang, who once more skim the oil after a further precipitation process. 
The oil is then sold to the native boatmen for use on their craft. 

About the only variation in the above method of oil extraction is that 
in cold weather, when the oil congeals to a grease stage, it is necessary 
to heat the mass slightly in order to allow precipitation to take place. 
This is usually accomplished by steam coils being placed within the con- 
taining tank. Under this treatment the product soon liquifies, the foreign 
matter drops to the bottom, and the clear liquid is drained off through 
stopcocks placed just high enough to avoid the thick, muddy sediment at 
the bottom. 

V.\RIED USES OF THE OIL 

T'ung-yu is widely used throughout China as a paint oil for outside 
purposes. It is held that as a drying oil it excels even linseed oil. One 
of its greatest local markets is found among the native boatmen, who never 
paint their boats but coat them with the cruder grades of wood oil, which 
not only give the woodwork a bright, lustrous finish but also act as an 
excellent preservative. When certain mineral substances known as t'utzu 
and t'o-shen are added to the wood oil and the resulting mass heated for 
about two hours a varnish called kuang-yu is produced which is valuable 
as a water-proofing substance when placed on silks, pongees, and the like. 

T'ung-yu is also used as an adulterant in the manufacture of lacquer 
varnish, as an illuminant, and as an ingredient in concrete, and when mixed 
with lime and bamboo shavings it is used by the natives in calking their 
boats. The so-called Chinese or Indian ink is made from the soot resulting 
from the burning of the oil or the fruit husks. The product is also used 
as a dressing for leather, in the manufacture of soap, and as a varnish 
for fine furniture. It is chiefly used in foreign countiies for the manu- 
facture of varnish from cheap gums. Other oils require a higher and 
more expensive quality of gum in order that the resulting varnish be of 
equal grade. This feature, together with the rapidity with which wood- 
oil varnish dries, has caused the demand for the product to steadily increase. 

According to Ennis : * 

China wood oil is rapidly becoming conspicuous as a linseed oil sub- * 
stitute in the varnish trade. * * * The consumption of the oil in the 

* Ennis, W. D. Linseed oil and other oils (1909), page 235. 



SEED OILS 121 

► 

United States has been steadily increasing. There are two grades of the 
oil, one yellow and the other darker. * * * The oil is extremely poison- 
ous and, as received from the Chinese, subject to heavy adulteration. 
* * * The crude oil dries with extreme rapidity, but with an opaque 
film, due to the presence of mucilaginous matter, which also causes the 
oil to become waxy at low temperatures, when organic compounds anal- 
ogous to stearates settle out. It cannot be used in its raw state, but is 
always chemically treated. It may be "boiled" with load or manganese 
dryers, with rosin or with resinates, to hasten oxidation, but must not be 
heated above 350 degrees F., at which temperature it suddenly thickens 
to an insoluble gelatine-like substance which cannot be softened again. 
It is nearly always used in a mixture with linseed oil. Its characteristic 
lard-like odor may be detected in solutions as weak as 10 per cent. 

Brown * gives analyses and specifications of high-grade 
Chinese wood oil and also the correction factor for calculating 
the specific gravity at different temperatures. 

Stevens of Irvington, N. J., and Armitage f of Newark, N. J., 
have compiled a very extensive bibliography of Chinese wood oil 
which they claim comprises the entire literature on the subject. 
This is issued in two volumes, each consisting of two parts 
which are really volumes in themselves. 

In the Philippines, oil is obtained from two species of this 
genus, Aleurites moluccana (lumbang) and Aleiirites trisperma 
(bagilumbang). These oils have been studied by Brill and Ag- 
caoili, who believe that either could be substituted for tung oil, 
as they are quick-drying and give a clear, transparent, non- 
sticking film on a surface when exposed to the air for a short 
time. If the Philippine oils are placed on the market, they 
will probably be used primarily for the same purposes as tung 
oil. The oil obtained from Aleurites trisperma is almost indis- 
tinguishable from tung oil for the uses which the latter chiefly 
serves, while that obtained from Aleurites moluccana is possibly 
slightly inferior to tung oil, although superior to linseed oil. 

Tung oil heated to a temperature of about 200' to 250' solid- 
ifies, and in this condition is unsuitable for making varnishes. 
We have found that oil from Aleurites moluccana or A. trisperma 
may be heated to about 315° at which temperature it distills 
and does not solidify until about one-third has been volatilized. 
In so far as this property is concerned the Philippine lumbang 
oils are more suitable for varnish making than is tung oil. 



* Brown, F., Chemical News, Volume 114 (1916), page 123. 
t Stevens, G. H., and Armitage, J. W., Patents, technology and bibliog- 
raphy of China wood oil (tung oil), 1914. 



122 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

Aguilar,''' who also has made a study of the Philippine oils, 
says that lumbang oil is similar to linseed oil in its properties 
as a paint vehicle, and that, like linseed, it has certain disadvan- 
tages for use in red-lead paints. Bagilumbang oil cannot be used 
as a paint vehicle, especially with red lead, as it dries into a 
paste. Aguilar found that a mixture of the two oils, containing 
25 to 50 per cent of lumbang oil makes a good paint vehicle for 
red lead. The Aleurites oil so far produced in the Philippines 
is almost entirely the product of Aleurites mohtccana, which is 
fairly abundant in a wild state in many parts of the Philippines, 
and is also planted. Aleurites trisperma is reported from many 
localities, but is probably not so abundant. Both species can be « 
grown readily in plantations. 

The Bureau of Forestry is using large numbers of both species 
in its reforestation projects and is also distributing seed and 
encouraging other people to plant these species. It is safe to 
say that at the present time the yearly planting of these species 
amounts to between 400,000 and 500,000 trees. From these 
figures it would seem reasonable to predict that in the near 
future large quantities of Aleurites oil will be available in the 
Philippines. During the year 1918, 184,428 kilograms of Aleu- 
rites moluccana oil valued at 129,838 pesos were exported from 
the Philippines. 

That there would be a market for considerable quantities of t 
Aleurites moluccana (lumbang) oil is shown by the fact that 
one American concern, which has experimented with this oil, 
has inquired as to the possibility of obtaining 4,000 tons per 
month. 

ALEURITES MOLUCCANA (L.) Willd. (Figs. 43-45). LuMBANG. 

< 
Local names: Bido (Misamis, Davao) ; lumbang (Rizal, Lagxina, Zam- 

boanga, Batangas) ; lumbang-bato (Cavite). 

LUMBANG OIL. 

The oil of Aleurites moluccana is known in the Philippines 
as lumbang oil. This species is distributed through Polynesia, 
the Malayan region, and the Hawaiian Islands. In Hawaii the 
oil is called kukui or candle-nut oil. The latter name is also 
used in other parts of the world. According to Wilcox and 
Thompson f the Hawaiians strung the nuts on sticks and used 

* Aguilar, R. H., The lumbang oil industry in the Philippine Islands. 
Philippine Journal of Science, Volume 14 (1919), pages 275-285. 

t Wilcox, E. V. and Thompson, A. R., The extraction and use of kukui * 
oil. Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, Press Bulletin 39 (1913). 



SEED OILS 



123 




FIGURE 43. ALEURITES MOLUCCANA (LUMBaNG), THE SOURCE OF LUMBANG OIL. 
I BARK, FRUITS, AND LEAVES. 



124 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

4 

them for lighting their houses. This use of the kernels gave 
rise to the name "candle nut." 

Lumbang is a drying oil and in this respect resembles linseed 
oil and also the Chinese wood oil (tung oil). Lumbang oil is 
used for various purposes, such as the preparation of paints, 
varnishes and linoleum, illumination, soap manufacture, wood 
preservation, etc. 

Lumbang oil has been manufactured in the Philippines in 
very primitive mills for years, and is used locally for mixing 
paints, for protecting bottoms of dugout canoes and other small 
craft against water and marine borers, and for illumination. 

According to Richmond and Rosario,* who examined the Phil- 
ippine nuts, the whole nuts are composed of 66 per cent of shells 
and 34 per cent of kernels, and the kernels contain 52 per cent 
of oil. Wilcox and Thompson f state that the whole nut con- 
tains 67 per cent of shells and 33 per cent of kernels, and that 
the kernels contain 60 per cent of oil. Lewkowitsch % reports 
that some samples of lumbang kernels contain 62.25 per cent 
of oil and others 58.6 per cent. 

The oil manufactured locally is made in a few Chinese shops 
in Manila, with primitive hand apparatus. The nuts are hot- 
pressed to save labor, but it is said that cold-pressing produces 
a better grade of oil. 

The nuts of Aleurites moluccana have very hard shells which 
are difficult to crack; and, moreover, it is difficult to separate 
the kernel from the shell. A common procedure is to crack the 
nuts and pick out the kernels by means of a pointed instrument, 
a very tedious operation. Aguilar § mentions the following 
methods which are also used to separate shell from kernel : 

In some localities the Chinese place large quantities of nuts on the 
ground, cover them with straw and after burning the straw immediately 
sprinkle the nuts with cold water. They claim that with this method the 
nuts burst. In Laguna, Tayabas, and Batangas Provinces, the nuts are 
placed in tanks of boiling water and left there for from five to six hours. 
This loosens the kernel, and when sufficiently cool the nuts are cracked 
and the kernels are separated from the shells. These two methods produce 
brown kernels from which only brown oil can be expressed. 

In More Province, along the coast of Davao, the nuts are dried in the 

* Richmnd, G. F., and Rosario, M. V. del, Commercial utilization of 
some Philippine oil-bearing seeds: preliminary paper. Philippine Journal 
of Science, Volume 2 (1907), pages 439 to 449. 

t Wilcox, E. v., and Thompson, A. R., The extraction and use of kukui 
oil. Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, Press Bulletin 39, (1913). 

t Lewkowitsch, J. Oils, fats, and waxes (1915). 

§ Aguilar, R. H., The lumbang oil industry in the Philippine Islands. 
Philippine Journal of Science, Volume 14 (1919), page 275. 



SEED OILS 



125 







FIGURE 44. ALEURITES MOLUCCANA (LUMBANS), THE SOURCE OF LUMBaNQ OIL. 
DRIED FRUITS AND SEEDS. NATURAL SIZE. 



126 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

sun until the kernels loosen sufficiently, which may be ascertained by 
occasionally cracking a few nuts for trial. The drying takes from five 
to ten days or more, depending upon the condition of the weather; the 
nuts are then cracked and the kernels removed. This process is very 
slow, although the kernel usually comes out whole and is of the best quality. 

Aguilar has developed the following method : Nuts are heated 
in an oven at 95 degrees for three or four hours and then 
placed in cold water and left overnight. By the next morning 
most of the shells have burst and the kernels are picked out 
without much difficulty. This method, he says, has no injurious 
effect on the oil. 

The following methods of removing the shells from the seeds 
are in practice in the Province of Laguna. The seeds are* 
placed over a fire for from 72 to 120 hours, af the end of which 
time the shells are cracked, or they are spread in the sunshine 
until cracks are visible in the shells. In both cases, after the 
shells crack, the seeds are thrown against a hard object, prefer- 
ably a large stone, when the shells fall off in pieces. These 
methods give brown kernels. 

It has been suggested that the nuts with the shells could be 
crushed and ground in an oil mill and the oil expressed from 
the ground material. Aguilar believes, however, that the best 
method is to separate the kernel from the shell and then ex- 
tract the oil; as about 20 kilos more oil per ton of nuts may 
be extracted from the kernel than from the crushed nuts. At* 
present the Chinese manufacturers sell the cake, which is left 
after the oil is extracted from the nuts, at a good profit. Ac- 
cording to the results obtained by Aguilar (Table 14), the fer- 
tilizing value of the cake left from the crushed nuts would be 
so much reduced as to make it almost useless as a fertilizer. 

Table 14. — Fertilizing value of lumhang (Aleurites niohiccana) cake. 



Constituents. 



Moisture 

Nitrogen (N2) 

Potash (K2O) 

Phosphorous (P2O6). 



Cake 

from 

kernel. 



Per cent. 

11.13 

8.86 

1.67 

1.02 



Cake 

from 

crushed 

nuts. 



Per cent. 
8.46 
1.25 
0.68 
0.25 



Aguilar has found that the nuts of Aleurites moluccana may 
be stored a year or more without any appreciable change in « 
the amount or composition of the oil. However, when the ker- 
nels without the shells are stored, they are apt to be very severely 



SEED OILS 



127 



w 








• %r\ 








■ittilr 




k 




:i> . 


fl-^ 




1 






^ 


/ ;4^ 


•^P^^^pT^-v^N^ 


W 








i^Hi 




^ 








/ / ) 




^ 


i 




ft. 


Hpir ^kj^^^HH^P 






^ 






''»^ mMmA 


■i J 


^'^ 








"^ 






l^\ 




i.:- 3 


h^^-4^i 






,9r iJlglAwl 


'"'' ■■''■'■■ '^|SHh|'*" '•■'.''' ■ 




'■^1 


wb^lf^ml 


*'#'''||Mf ; =''^ 




:S 


]^M 


>-" . *-^^^ -^ 




;1 


^Bf 


: ■ /,• -■ ■*'' \# 







FIGURE 45. ALEURITES MOLUCCANA (LUMBAN6), THE SOURCE OF LUMBANG OIL. 
BARK, FLOWERS, AND LEAVES. 



128 



PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 



attacked by small beetles, and the oil becomes more and more 
acid, although no change may be noticed in the appearance of 
the kernel and oil extracted. An actual test showed that the 
acidity of the oil was increased from 0.55 to 5.32 when thv3 
kernels were stored in a cold, dry place for one month. It is 
therefore advisable to extract the oil from fresh nuts. 

Analyses of the kernels of Aleurites moluccana show that the 
principal constituents are oil (consisting largely of fat) and 
protein. The percentage of fiber and ash is very low. This 
is shown by the results recorded in Table 15. 

Table 15. — Analyses of lumbang kernels. 



Constituents. 


Sample. 


l.a 


2.b 


Water 


5.00 
62. 175 
22.65 
6.83 
3.345 


8.23 
59.93 

8.04 
17.62 

3.56 

2.62 


Oil - 






Ash .- , 


Fiber 







■■' Semler, H., Die Tropische Agrikultur, Volume 2, page 515. 
'■Agricultural Gazette, New South Wales, Volume 17, (1906), i)ago E59. 

Lumbang oil has a light yellow color, and an agreeable odor and 
taste. It dries in thin films when allowed to stand several days. 
The results of various analyses of lumbang oil quoted by Wilcox 
and Thompson are given in Table 16. Aguilar also analyzed 
various samples of lumbang oil. His results are given in 
Table 17. 

Table 16. — Constants of lumbang oil (Wilcox and Thompson). 



Constants. 


Sample. 


l.a 


2. b 


3.C 


4.d 


1 

5.e 


Specific gravity 15^0 . 


0.925 
1.72 
204.2 
139.7 
96.4 
1.98 
17.8 


0. 920-0. 926 


0. 925 


0.925 
0.97 

194.8 

114.2 


0.924 

0.5 
189.5 
152.8 
95.2 








184-187.4 
136.3-139.3 


192.6 

163.7 
95.5 


Iodine value 


Hehner value 


Volatile acids 




1.2 


Titer 






Butyro-refractometer .. 


76-75 5 (15°C) 76 f25°C) 

















•■> Imperial Institute, Bulletin of Imperial Institute, Volume V (1907), page 135. 
'' De Negri, Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, Volume XX (1901), page 909. 
' Lewkowitsch, Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, Volume XX (1901), page 909. 
'' Fendler, G., Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, Volume XXIII (1904), page 613. 
'■ Kassler, Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, Volume XXII (1903), page 639. 



SEED OILS 129 

Table 17. — Constants of lumbang oil (Aguilar). 



Constants. 



Appearance 

Sp. gr. at 15. 5° C — 
Saponification value 

Iodine number 

Acid number 



Oil extracted 

from fresh 

kernels. 



light colored 
0. 9261 
188 
154 

0.55 



Oils obtained from 
the market. 



Grade I. 



brown 
0. 9253 
193 
157 

64.25 



Grade II. 



dark brown 
0. 9237 
194 
160 
106. 48 



The results of the analyses of lumbang oil quoted by Wilcox 
and Thompson and of those of Aguilar vary somewhat, but they 
all have the same characteristics of high iodine and saponifica- 
tion values. 

The constants of Philippine lumbang oil are quite similar to 
those of tung and linseed oils. This is shown by the work of 
Richmond and Rosario, the results of which are recorded in 
Table 18. In view of this similarity, it is not surprising that 
lumbang oil has properties very similar to those of tung and 
linseed oils and that it may be used for like purposes. 

Table 18. — Constants of lumbang, tung and linseed oils. 

[Data from Richmond and Rosario.] 



Constants. 



Specific gravity at 15° C 

Acid value (milligrams of potash per one gram 
of oil) 

Saponification value (milligrams of potash per 
one gram of oil) 

Iodine value (Hanus) 

Maumene value 

Refractive index at 60° C 

Hehner value 

Melting point 

Solidifying point - 



Lumbang 

(Aleurites 

moluccana. ) 



0. 925-0. 927 
2.115 

193.5 

150.2 

100 
1. 4648 
95.54 
-12° C. 
-22° C. 



Bagilum- 

bang 
(Aleurites 
trisperma.) 



0. 9368 

2.150 

200.3 

200.5 

158.5 

86.2 

L483 

95.79 

2°-4° C. 

-6. 5° C. 



Chinese 

wood or 

tung oil 

(Aleurites 

sp.) 



0. 9425 

4.547 
4.568 

189.3 

155.7 
105 

1. 5032 
94.32 
2°C. 
-7. 5° C. 



Linseed oil. 



0. 9368 
3.18 

186 

179 
103 

1. 4687 
94.43 

-25° C. 



Analyses of the oil cakes, which were obtained on a large scale 
by expelling the oil from the crushed kernels, are given in 
, Table 19. 



168837 9 



130 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

Table 19. — Analyses of lumbang oil cake. 



Constituents. 



Oil - 

Moisture 

Ash 

Protein .. 

Fiber 

P2OB 

K2O 

Mg&Ca. 



Sample. 



10.00 
8.28 

46.16 
1.47 
4.39 
1.95 



.5.5 
10.25 



47.81 



3.68 
1.53 
7.19 



'■ Lewkowitsch, Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, Volume 20 (1901), page 909. 
'' Semler, H., Die Tropische Agrikultur, Volume 2, page 515. 

Although the oil cake apparently has a high food value it can- 
not, according to Wilcox and Thompson, be used as cattle food 
because it has a poisonous effect upon stock. It is a matter of 
common knowledge that the kernels, either fresh or old, are 
strongly purgative. The cake left after the oil has been ex- 
tracted from the kernel is used as a fertilizer, chiefly by the 
Chinese betel-pepper growlers. 

Lumbang has been very successfully grow^n by the Division 
of Investigation, Bureau of Forestry, at Los Bafios. The planting 
of this species was begun by Forester H. M. Curran. Table 20 * 
gives average rates of growth of large numbers of these trees. 
For the last few years the trees in the plantations have been 
rather crowded, and the best trees have made considerably faster 
rates of growth than the average indicated in the table. The 
smaller trees should be removed so as to leave more space for 
the larger ones. The trees which will be left permanently in « 
the plantation have, therefore, shown a faster rate of growth 
than that given in the table. 

Table 20. — Groivth of Aleurites moluccana (lumbang) in plantations at 

Los Banos, Laguna. 



Age. 


Dia- 
meter. 


Height. 


Years. 
2 - — 


cm. 


m. 

3.58 
4.72 
7.28 
8.13 
10.32 
12.40 


3 


4 
8 
10 
12 
15 


4 . 


B , . --- 


6 


8 





SEED OILS 131 

* 

Trees on the edge of the plantation have produced considerable 
quantities of nuts for several years, while those in the main 
stand have produced comparatively few. Some trees flowered 
and produced fruit when three years old. 

Difficulty has been experienced in germinating the seeds of 
Aleurites moluccana. The seeds are very hard-shelled, and un- 
treated seeds have been known to stay in a seed bed for as 
long as 38 to 150 days before germination. The most satis- 
factory method of treatment used was to place the seeds on the 
ground in a single layer and cover them with dried leaves or 
kogon grass (Imperata exaltata) . The grass is then burned. 
» Immediately after burning and while the seeds are still hot, 
they are thrown into cold water, which results in the cracking 
of the hard shells. The results obtained by this kind of treat- 
ment showed an average germination of more than 30 per cent. 
The seeds of lumbang are supposed to retain their vitality for 
a year or more, but we have very little certain knowledge on 
this point. 

As the seeds of lumbang have very hard shells and germinate 
slowly, large quantities of them accumulate on the ground under 
trees. They can, apparently, lie in this condition for a long time 
without losing much, if any, of their oil content. 

The yield of nuts per tree has not been determined accurately, 
♦and the common method of gathering the nuts makes such a 
determination difficult. Some people in Laguna, who engage 
in the business, estimate the yield from a tree at from 5,000 
to 15,000 seeds a year. As the nuts average about 10 grams 
each, this would be 50 to 150 kilograms per tree. One man 
said that he had thirty trees in his plantation and that every 
•year he obtained an average of 300 kilograms of husked seeds. 
This would be about 30 kilograms of unhusked nuts per tree. 
Aguilar informs us that he obtained from Cavite two sacks of 
nuts, each sack weighing about 25 kilograms and each of which, 
according to the collector, was obtained from a single tree. 
This estimate agrees rather closely with the one just mentioned. 
According to the above estimates a tree would yield from 5 to 
30 kilograms of oil per year. 

The fruits are allowed to fall and lie on the ground until that 
part of the fruit which surrounds the seed has decayed, after 
which the nuts are collected. 

Aleurites moluccana is a large tree reaching a diameter of 80 

•to 150 centimeters. The younger parts and inflorescences are 

hairy. The leaves have long petioles. The blades are 10 to 

20 centimeters long and are either entire or lobed. The fruit 



132 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

is ovoid, and 5 to 6 centimeters long. It contains one or 
two hard-shelled seeds. The seed is about 3 centimeters long 
and 2.5 centimeters broad. It has a hard, rough, ridged shell 
about 2.5 millimeters thick. This contains a white, oily, fleshy 
kernel consisting of a very thin embryo surrounded by a large 
endosperm. This is in turn covered by a thin, white, papery 
seed coat. This thin seed coat adheres firmly to both the shell 
and the kernel, so that the kernel is separated from the shell 
with difficulty. 

This species is distributed from Luzon to Mindanao and Pa- 
lawan, and recently has been planted in great numbers in Cebu. 

< 

ALEURITES TRISPERMA Blanco. (Fig. 46). Bagilumbang. 

Local names: Bagilumbang, balukandd (Laguna) ; banukaldg, lumbang- 
hanukuldd, lumbang-gubat (Cavite) ; balukanag (Batangas) ; lumbdng 
(Oriental Negros, Camarines). Also reported from Rizal, Tayabas and 
Davao. 

BAGILUMBANG OIL 

As previously mentioned, oil extracted from the nuts of Aleu- 
rites ty^isperma has characteristics which are almost indistin- 
guishable from those of Chinese wood oil or tung oil. 

According to Heyne * Aleurites cordata R. Br., until recently 
and erroneously believed to be a source of wood oil, occurs in 
southern Japan. The constants of this oil are remarkably like 
those of bagilumbang oil from Aleurites trisperma. ' 

The shells of Aleurites trisperma are much more easily cracked 
than those of Aleuntes moluccana. Moreover, the kernel is not 
so difficult to separate from the shell because, when the nut is 
dry, the kernel shrinks somewhat and may be easily removed 
after the nuts have been cracked. Richmond and del Rosario t 
found that one kilo of whole nuts contained 357 grams of shells* 
and 643 grams of kernels. 

The oil from the nuts of Aleurites trisperTYia. deteriorates when 
the nuts are stored. Moreover, according to Aguilar, the oil 
deteriorates also if not kept in an hermetically sealed container. 

Aguilar says that the yield of oil by expression at 800 kilo- 
grams per square centimeter may reach as high as 56 per cent 
of the weight of the kernels. Oil prepared from fresh nuts is 
of very good quality and light amber in color. The constants 
of bagilumbang oil have been determined by Richmond and Ro- 

* Heyne, K., De Nuttige Planten van Nederlandsch-Indie, (1913). 

t Richmond, G. F. and Rosario, M. V. del, Commercial utilization of ^ 
some Philippine oil-bearing seeds; preliminary paper. Philippine Journal 
of Science, Volume 2 (1907), pages 439 to 449. 



SEED OILS 






FIGURE 46. ALEURITES TRISPERMA (BAGILUMBANG), THE SOURCE OF BAGILUMBANG 

OIL. xi. 



134 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS ^ 

sario. A few of these constants have also been determined by 
Aguilar. These results are recorded in Table 21. Bagilumbang 
oil, like lumbang, has high iodine and saponification values and 
its physical and chemical properties are generally satisfactory. 
However, when the bagilumbang nuts were kept about sixteen 
months, they underwent so great a change in the oil value that 
the yield by expression was reduced from 56 to 40 per cent of 
the weight of the kernel, and the oil was high in acid value and 
much darker in color than that obtained from the fresh nuts. 

Table 21. — Constants of bagilumbang oil. 



Constants. 



(15.0° C 
Specific gravity I 



Acid value (milligrams of potash per one gram of oil) 

Acid value (cc. 0.1 N KOH) 

Saponification value 

Iodine value (Hanus) 

Maumene value 

Refractive index (60^ C) 1.483 

Hehner value... 95.79 

Melting point 2°-4° C. 

Solidifying point -6. 5C. 



Sample. 



l.a 



0.9368 
2.150 



0. 9362 



200.5 

158.5 166 
86.2 



2.22 
191 



^ Richmond, G. F., and Rosario, M. V. del. Commercial utilization of some Philippine « 
oil-bearing seeds: preliminary paper. Philippine Journal of Science, Volume 2 (1907), page 
439. 

'' Aguilar, R. H., A comparison of linseed oil and lumbang oils as paint vehicles. Philip- 
pine Journal of Science, Volume 12 (1917), page 235. 

According to Aguilar, the nuts of Aleurites trisperma may be 
crushed and finely ground in an oil mill and the oil extracted 
directly from the crushed nuts. However, he found that the* 
oil thus obtained was dirty, highly contaminated with shell par- 
ticles, dark colored, and had a relatively high acid value. Owing 
to the small amount of labor involved in shelling the nuts, it 
seems desirable to extract the oil from the kernels rather than 
from the whole nuts. It probably would be more profitable to 
cultivate Aleurites tris'perma than Aleurites moluccana, as the 
nuts of the former are more easily shelled than those of the 
latter, and, moreover, bagilumbang oil resembles tung oil more 
closely than does lumbang oil. 

However, Aleurites trisperyna is not so abundant as Aleurites 
moluccana and consequently the supply of bagilumbang nuts can- 
not be depended upon until planted trees have begun to bear. • 
The attention of manufacturers should, therefore, be directed 
for the present to the production of lumbang oil rather than 



SEED OILS 



135 



bagilumbang. Although the extraction of oil from bagilumbang 
nuts alone might not be profitable with the present small supply, 
it would probably become so if carried on in connection with the 
extraction of lumbang oil. 

The fertilizing value of the cake of Aleurites trisperma com- 
pares favorably with that of Aleurites moluccana, as will be seen 
from Table 22, taken from Aguilar. «* 

Table 22. — Fertilizing value of bagilumbang {Aleurites trisperma) cake. 



Constituents. 



L. 



Moisture 

Nitrogen (N2) 

Potash (K2O) 

Phosphorus (P2O5) 



Cake 

from 

kernel. 



Per cent. 
7.67 
6.20 
1.79 
1.13 



Cake 

from 

crushed 

nuts. 



Per cent. 
9.45 
2.99 
0.90 
0.95 



Planting experiments carried on by the Division of Investiga- 
tion, Bureau of Forestry, at Los Bafios showed a germination 
of 98 per cent, germination taking place in nineteen days. At 
the end of the first year the plants had an average height of 
54 centimeters. 

This species, like Aleurites moluccana, was hardy and grew 
rapidly. The average rates of growth of large numbers of trees 
are given in Table 23, 

Table 23. — Growth of Aleurites trisperma (bagilumbang) in plantations 

at Los Banos, Laguna. 



Age. 


Diam- 
eter. 


Height. 


Years. 
2 


cm. 


m. 

1.34 

3.15 

5.08 

1 


3 


5 

7 


5 . 





Aleurites trisperma is a tree 10 to 15 meters or more in height. 
It does not have hairs except on the inflorescences. The fruit 
is 5 to 6 centimeters in diameter, somewhat rounded and angled, 
opens later along the angles, and usually has three cells, each of 
which contains a single seed. The seed is somewhat circular, 
flattened, rather smooth, but with numerous small ridges. It 
has a hard, brittle shell about 0.5 millimeter thick. This con- 
tains a white, oily, fleshy kernel consisting of a very thin em- 
bryo surrounded by a large endosperm. This in turn is covered 



136 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUxMS, AND OILS 

by a thin, white, papery seed coat. When dry the kernel with 
the thin seed coat shrinks slightly away from the shell, so that 
the shell and kernel are easily separated. The kernels, when 
fresh, have a pleasant nutty flavor, but leave a burning sensa- 
tion in mouth, throat, esophagus and stomach; even a part of 
one nut may cause either violent vomiting within half an hour 
or else a terrific diarrhoea, beginning within a few hours after 
eating and lasting from 12 to 24 hours. 

This species is a native of the Philippines and is not found 
outside of the Archipelago. It is apparently not abundant, but 
quantities sufficient for extensive planting can be secured every 
year. 

Genus CROTON 
CROTON TIGLIUM L. (Fig. 47). Croton OIL PLANT. 

Local names: Gasi (Zambales) ; kamaisd (Rizal, Mindoro) ; kamausd 
(Bulacan) ; kasld (Balabac Island); makasld (Busuanga Island); malapi 
(Basilan) ; waracJinitc (Ilocos Sur) ; saligau (Union, Benguet, Cagayan) ; 
hiba (Negros, Camarines, Sorsogon, Samar, Cagayan, Marinduque, Leyte, 
Rizal, Mindoro, Tayabas) ; tubang-makaisd (Tayabas, Camarines) ; tuba- 
tuba (Negros, Camarines) ; tiibli (Lanao). 

CROTON OIL 

The seeds of this plant yield the croton oil of commerce, which 
is used chiefly in pharmaceutical preparations. The fruits or 
crushed leaves of this species are used in poisoning fishes. When 
the seeds are used for this purpose, they are pulverized and put 
in sacks which are placed in ponds or rivers. 

According to Lewkowitsch,* the seeds of Croton tiglium yield 
53 to 56 per cent of croton oil. The oil has a yellow, orange, 
or brown color, according to its age. It has a nauseous odor, 
a burning taste, and acts as a very powerful purgative. It dis- 
solves in petroleum ether in all proportions, differing in this 
respect from castor oil. It has the following constants (Lew- 
kowitsch) : 

Specific gravity (15°) 0.9437 

Solidifying point — 7° 

Saponification value (Mgrms KOH) 192.9-215.6 

Iodine value 101.7-109.1 

Reichert-Meissl value (CC.1/10 KOH). 12.1-13.56 

Refractive index (26°) -- 1.4781 

Oleo-refractometer (22°) +35° 

Butyro-refractometer (27°) 68°-77.5° 

Croton tiglium is a shrub or very small tree. The leaves are 
alternate, usually somewhat rounded at the base, pointed at the 
tip, with toothed margins, and from 7 to 12 centimeters in length. 

* Lew^kowitsch, J., Oils, fats, and waxes (1915). 



SEED OILS 



137 




FIGURE 47. CROTON TIGLIUM, THE SOURCE OF CROTON OIL. 



138 



PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 



The flowers are small and inconspicuous. The seeds are borne' 
in capsules which are usually three-angled and from 1.5 to 2 
centimeters in length. 

This species is found wild in the Philippines from northern 
Luzon to southern Mindanao. It is also cultivated to a limited 
extent. 

Genus JATROPHA 
JATROPHA CURCAS L. (Fig. 48). TuBANG-BAKOD or Physic nut. 

Local names: Galumbdng (Pampanga) ; kirisol (Bulacan) ; takumbdu 
(Zambales) ; tagumbdu (Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan, Bontoc) ; taiigan-tdrigan 
(Bataan, Manila) ; tangantdngan-tiiba (Bulacan) ; fau-nd (Ilocos Sur) ; 
taua-taud (Abra) ; ti'iba (Rizal, Manila, Camarines, Mindoro) ; tuba-tuba 
(Leyte) ; tubang-bdkod (Laguna, Rizal). , 

PHYSIC-NUT OIL 

The seeds of this species furnish an oil used as an emetic 
and purgative. The oil has been used for illuminating purposes 
in some parts of the Philippines. It is known in commerce as 
curcas oil. According to Richmond and Del Rosario * this oil 
belongs to the class of semidrying oils and is employed in the 
manufacture of soaps and candles and also as an illuminant and 
lubricant, but because of its drying properties it is not well 
adapted for the last-mentioned purpose. In India it is used as 
a purgative. A single fresh seed, eaten raw, may cause both 
vomiting and severe diarrhoea. 

Lewkowitsch f states that the fresh oil has a pale color, but. 
becomes yellow with a reddish tint on exposure to the air. Its 
unpleasant odor is characteristic, and may serve to distinguish 
curcas oil from other oils; it is further characterized by its 
strong purgative properties, which are much more pronounced 
than those of castor oil. The constants of curcas oil are given 
in Table 24. f 

Table 24. — Constants of physic nut oil. 



Constants. 


(^) 


(b) 


(0) 


Acid value .. -. 


8.5 


19 
192.4 


11 
192.6 






0.5 
8.4 










0.5 

89 


0.5 

88 











" Lewkowitsch, J. Oils, fats, and waxes. 

•i and <^ Heyne, K., De Nuttige Planten van Nederlandsch-Indie (1913). 



* Richmond, G. F., and Rosario, M. V. del. Commercial utilization of some 
Philippine oil-bearing seeds; preliminary paper. Philippine Journal of* 
Science, Section A, Volume 2 (1907), page 446. 

t Lewkowitsch, J., Oils, fats, and waxes (1915). 



SEED OILS 



139 




140 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

Richmond and Rosario say that the physic nuts they examined* 
gave 45 per cent of hulls and 55 per cent of kernels ; the latter 
yielded by extraction with chloroform 63.05 per cent of oil, 
which corresponds to 34.65 per cent calculated on the basis of 
whole seeds. 

Jatropha curcas is an erect shrub or small tree 2 to 5 meters 
in height. The leaves are entire, angular or somewhat 3- to 
5-lobed, and 10 to 18 centimeters long; the apex is pointed, the 
base heart-shaped, the petiole long. The flowers are greenish 
white, and 7 to 8 millimeters in diameter. The capsule is rounded, 
at first fleshy, but later becoming dry, and composed of 2 or 3 
one-seeded divisions which are 3 or 4 centimeters long. 

This species is a native of tropical America, but is now * 
thoroughly naturalized and widely distributed throughout the 
Philippines, being most commonly cultivated in towns as a 
hedge-plant. Hence the name tubang-bakod, tuba being a name 
given to many plants of this family used for poisoning fish and 
bcikod the Tagalog word for hedge or fence. 

JATROPHA MULTIFIDA L. Mana. 

Local name: Maud (Spanish-Filipino). 

MANA OIL 

According to Heyne * the seeds are poisonous and contain 
about 30 per cent of oil, which is apparently very similar to 
that of Jatropha curcas. It is used in Java more for illu- * 
minating purposes than as a purgative. 

Jatropha multifida is a shrub 2 or 3 meters in height. The 
petioles are as long as the leaves. The leaves are alternate, 
15 to 30 centimeters long and divided nearly to the base into 
about ten rather narrow lobes, which are in turn frequently 
lobed. The flowers are red and 5 to 6 millimeters long. The * 
capsule is somewhat three-angled and about 2 centimeters long. 

This species is occasionally cultivated in the Philippines and 
is distributed from Luzon to Mindanao. 

Genus MALLOTUS 
MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell Arg. Banato. 

BANATO OIL 

A description and the local names of this species are given 
in the section on dyes. 

According to Watt t the seeds yield 5.83 per cent of a bland 

* Heyne, K., De Nuttige Planten van Nederlandsch-Indie, Volume 3 c 
(1917), page 100. 

t Watt, G., The commercial products of India (1908), page 757. 



SEED OILS ;[41 

oil. It is used medicinally by the people of India and many 
writers recommend it as worthy of investigation.* 

Hefter f says that the yield of oil is 20 to 24 per cent. 

Genus RICINUS 
RICINUS COMMUNIS L. (Fig. 49). Tangan-TANGAN or Castor-OIL. 

PLANT. 
Local names: Katana (Batanes Islands); lansina (Batangas) ; talam- 
punai (Laguna) ; tangantdiigan (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Abra, Cagayan, 
Pangasinan, Pampanga, Zambales, Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, Manila, Laguna, 
Tayabas, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, Masbate, Capiz, Misamis, Cuyo 
Islands); tau-ua-tau-ud (Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Pangasinan). 

» CASTOR OIL 

This plant, the source of the castor oil of commerce, grows 
wild in all parts of the Philippines, but the seeds are said to 
be very poor in oil. According to the Bureau of Agriculture, 
only imported seeds of improved varieties should be planted. 

Castor oil is used medicinally as a purgative. It is also used 
in the manufacture of Turkey-red oils and in making soap. It 
is employed as a lubricant, as a preservative of leather, and 
for other purposes. Recently the demand for castor oil has in- 
creased owing to the fact that it is used as a lubricant for air- 
plane engines. 

Bottler and Sabin $ state : 

Castor-oil is used as an ingredient for "artificial skin" varnishes, such 
as one composed of shellac 1 part, alcohol 3 parts, castor-oil i part; 
or another, 8 parts collodion to 1 part castor-oil; it is also used in retouch- 
ing-varnishes and negative varnishes in photography. 

To give elasticity to spirit varnishes, it is thinned with alcohol to the 
consistency of the varnish, and added to it. 

, Castor oil is colorless or slightly greenish. Commercially it is 
manufactured by expression or extraction. The best quality, 
which is used for medicinal purposes, can only be prepared by 
expression in the cold, as the poisonous alkaloid, ricine, does not 
pass into the oil under these conditions. The expressed oil cake 
contains the poisonous alkaloid and is unfit for use as cattle 
food. It is serviceable, however, as an excellent fertilizer. 
Scherubel § discusses the cultivation, harvest, and extraction 

* Watt, G., Dictionary of the economic products of India, Volume 5 
(1891), page 122. 

t Hefter, G., Technologie der Fette und Ole (1908). 

t Bottler, M., and Sabin, A. H., German and American varnish making, 
page 48. 

§ Scherubel, E., Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Victoria, 
Volume 16 (1918), page 505. 



142 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

of oil from the castor-oil seeds and states that seeds from two 
varieties grown wild in Australia contained 47 to 49 per cent 
of oil. This yield is somewhat less than that obtained from 
Calcutta and Java seeds, which give about 53 per cent of oil. 

The process of refining castor oil consists largely in removing 
albumen by steaming the oil. The albumen and part of the 
enzyme which has passed into the oil are thus coagulated and 
removed by filtering. Castor oil keeps very well when refined 
properly and does not easily become rancid. The percentage of 
free fatty acids does not increase considerably on standing. Ac- 
cording to Lewkowitsch * a sample exposed to the athmosphere 
for four years contained only 1 per cent of free fatty acids. < 

Castor oil has the following constants (Lewkowitsch) : 

Specific gravity (15.5°), 0.9591. 

Solidifying point -10° to -12°. 

Saponification value (Mgrms KOH) 176.7 to 186.6. 

Iodine value 81.4 to 90.6. 

Reichert-Meissl value (C.C.1/10 norm. KOH) 1.1. 

Acetyl value 149.9 to 150.5. 

Maumene test 46° to 47°. 

Refractive index (15°) 1.4795 to 1.4803. 

Oleo-refractometer (22°) 37 to 46. 

Butyro-refractometer (25°) 78°. 

Viscosity (Redwood's viscosimeter) 1160 to 1190. 

As shown by the figures above, the acetyl value is unusually • 
high. Mitchell f states that castor oil has an acetyl value of 
about 150 and emphasizes the fact that other oils and fats have 
acetyl values ranging from about 2 (coconut oil) to 15 (cotton- 
seed oil) and 19 (croton oil). 

According to Richmond and Rosario J castor oil could be man- 
ufactured in a coconut-oil mill and, if the plant were cultivated < 
on a sufficient scale, there would be a possibility of the com- 
mercial production of this oil for lubricating and illuminating 
purposes. It could probably be sold as cheaply as coconut oil, 
which is now used extensively in food products. 

Ricinus communis is a coarse, erect, somewhat woody bush 
about 1 to 4 meters high. The leaves are smooth, alternate, 20 
to 60 centimeters in diameter and palmately divided, with pointed 
lobes. The leaves and stems are green or purplish. The fruit 



* Lewkowitsch, J., oils, fats, and waxes, (1915). 

t Mitchell, C. A., Edible oils and fats, (1918). 

X Richmond, G. F., and Rosario, M. V. del, Commercial utilization of 
some Philippine oil-bearing seeds: preliminary paper. Philippine Journal 
of Science, Section A, Volume 2 (1907), page 448. 



SEED OILS 




FIGURE 49. RICINUS COMMUNIS (TAn^AN-TAnSAN), THE SOURCE OF CASTOR OIU 

xi. 



144 PHILIPPll^E RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

« 

is an ovoid capsule, 1 to 1.5 centimeters long, and covered v^ith 
soft, spine-like processes. 

Family ANACARDIACEAE 

Genus ANACARDIUM 
ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L. Kasui or CASHEW NUT. 

Local names: Balubad or balubar (Bataan, Pampanga, Bulacan) ; ba- 
lubat (Bataan, Mindoro) ; hatuban (Bataan); balubog (Bulacan); kachui 
(Palawan) ; kasoi or kasui (Isabela, Ilocos Norte and Sur, Abra, Tarlac, 
Bataan, Zambales, Manila, Rizal, Laguna, Batangas, Camarines, Mindoro, 
Capiz, Marinduque, Palawan, Misamis, Cuyo Islands, Zamboanga) ; kosing 
(Amburayan) ; sambalduke (Pangasinan). 

« 

CASHEW-NUT OIL 

The roasted kernels are often used to make a very savory 
nut candy, and also, according to Richmond and Rosario,* for 
the adulteration of chocolate. They say that the expressed ker- 
nels yield a sweet, yellowish oil. 

Lewkowitsch f states that the yield of oil from the kernels is 
47.2 per cent and that the oil has the following constants : 

Saponification value 195 

Iodine value 84 

Refractive index (20°) 1.4702 

Watt t says that : 

* * * Two oils are obtainable from this plant: (1) a light-yellow* 
from the pressed kernels, of which the finest quality is equal to almond oil; 
and (2) "Cardole," obtained from the shell of the nut^ — an acrid and 
powerful fluid efficacious for preserving carved wood, books, etc., against 
white ants. * * * 

Watt also mentions that the bark yields a gum which is ob- 
noxious to insects. < 

Ajiacardium occidentale is a small tree with a trunk which is 
usually small and crooked. It has a large, yellow, pear-shaped 
fruit, with a kidney-shaped seed attached to one end. Both the 
fruit and seed are edible, the fru^it raw and the kernels raw or 
roasted. 

This species, introduced at an early date from America, is 
widely distributed in the Philippines. It is cultivated in towns 
and on farms, and runs wild in old clearings. 

* Richmond, G. F., and Rosario, M. V. del. Commercial utilization of 
some Philippine oil-bearing seeds; preliminary paper. Philippine Journal 
of Science, Section A, Volume 2 (1907), page 445. 

t Lewkowitsch, J., Oils, fats, and waxes (1915). < 

J Watt, George, The commercial products of India (1908). 



SEED OILS 145 

Family CELASTRACEAE 

Genus CELASTRUS 
CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd. 

CELASTRUS PANICULATA OIL 

According to Watt: * 

The seeds yield by expression a deep scarlet or yellow oil, used med- 
icinally. The oil deposits a quantity of fat after it has been kept a short 
time. Its odour is pungent and acrid, and treated with sulphuric acid it 
turns of a dark bistre colour. It is much admired as an external appli- 
cation along with a poultice of the crushed seeds. It is also burnt in 
lamps, and employed in certain religious ceremonies. The seeds sub- 
* mitted to destructive distillation yield the "Oleum Nigrum," an empyreum- 
atic black oily fluid employed medicinally in the treatment of beri-ben 
(Cooke). According to Dr. Dymock, the seeds are distilled along with 
benzoin, cloves, nutmegs, and mace. This oil is manufactured in the 
Northern Circars, the best in Vizagapatam and Ellore, where it is sold 
in small blue or black bottles, each containing about 4 oz., at prices from 
12 annas to one rupee a bottle. 

Lewkowitsch f states that : 

The seeds from the shrub Celastriis panicxdatus yield a dark-red pun- 
gent oil from which "stearine" separates on standing. In Ceylon this oil 
is known as "Duhudu oil," and serves as a nerve stimulant; it is also 
used there for external application to sores. 

Celastriis paniculata is a large, woody vine. The leaves are 
alternate, somewhat oval shaped, pointed at the tip, rounded or 
slightly pointed at the base, with toothed margins, and 5 to 12 
centimeters long. The inflorescences are 7 to 18 centimeters 
long. The flowers are numerous, greenish or greenish white, 
and about .5 millimeter in diameter. The fruit is an ovoid or 
^ somewhat rounded, yellow capsule which is 7 to 9 centimeters 
long and three-celled. 

This species is distributed from northern Luzon to Mindanao 
and Palawan. 

Family SAPINDACEAE 

Genus GANOPHYLLUM 
GANOPHYLLUM FALCATUM Blume. (Fig. 50). Arangen. 

Local names: Ardiigen (Iloko in Union, Pangasinan) ; bagusalai (Mi- 
samis) ; gogong-ldngil (Cavite) ; gogolingin (Pampanga) ; gugo (Tablas 
Island); hdlas (Capiz) ; malatumbdga (Bataan) ; odd (Mindoro) ; paliim- 
piing, pararan (Davao) ; sdleng (Bontoc) ; tiigdbi (Tayabas). 

* Watt, G., A dictionary of the economic products of India, Volume 2 
» (1889), page 238. 

t Lewkowitsch, J., Oils, fats, and waxes. Volume 2 (1915), page 338. 

168837 10 



146 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

ARANGEN OIL 

The seeds of this species yield a solid fat used for illumina- 
tion. The people of the hills back of San Fernando, La Union, 
chiefly the Igorotes, have extracted this product for many years. 
The seeds are crushed and then boiled, when the oil floats on the 
surface. Wells,* who examined this product, says that even with 
potash it makes a good hard soap. 

Ganophyllum falcatum is a tree reaching a height of about 
25 meters and a diameter of about 70 centimeters. The leaves 
are alternate, 20 to 35 centimeters long, and pinnate with alter- 
nate leaflets which are inequilateral, pointed at the tip, oblique 
at the base, and from 5 to 12 centimeters in length. The flowers • 
are small, yellowish, and occur in large numbers on compound 
flowering shoots. The fruits are about 1.5 centimeters in length, 
pointed at the tip, rounded at the -base, and contain a single 
seed. The wood is hard and heavy, of fine texture, yellowish 
white, apparently durable, and is used locally for posts and 
other structural parts of houses. 

This species is distributed from northern Luzon to Mindanao, 

Genus NEPHELIUM 
NEPHELIUM LAPPACEUM L, USAU OR RambutAN. 

RAMBUTAN TALLOW 

A description, figure, and the local names of this species are 
given in the bulletin on edible plants. 

Hefter t states that the seeds of Nephelium lappaceum yield 
40 to 48 per cent of rambutan tallow. 

According to Baczewski t this tallow has the following con- 
stants : < 

Specific gravity 0.9236 

Solidifying point 38°-39° 

Melting point - 42°-46° 

Saponification value -.. 193.8 

Iodine value 39.4 

The insoluble fatty acids of this tallow contain 45.5 per cent 
of oleic acid. 

* Wells, A. H., Chief, Division of Organic Chemistry, Bureau of Science, 
Manila. 

t Hefter, G., Technologie der Fette und Ole, Volume 2 (1908), page 652. 

t Baczev^rski, M., Chemische untersuchung der Samen von Nephelium lap- 
paceum und des darin enthaltenen fettes. Monatshefte fiir Chemie, t 
Volume 16 (1895), page 866. 



SEED OILS 



147 




FIGURE 50. GANOPHYLLUM FALCATUM (ARAKTBEN). Xi. 



148 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

« 

NEPHELIUM MUTABILE Blanco. BuLALA. 

Local names: Alpdi (Laguna) ; bakalau (Pangasinan) ; balimbingan 
(Lanao) ; buldla (Camarines, Tayabas, Laguna, Rizal) ; kakao-kakao (Su- 
rigao) ; karayo (Mindoro) ; lagiian (Tayabas) ; malamjmtian (Samar) ; 
mardngis (Cagayan) ; pangydu (Rizal). 

BULALA OIL 

Heyne * reports that according to Greshoff the seeds contain 
29.2 per cent of fat melting at 34'' C. He says that it was 
formerly used as a lamp oil. 

Nephelmm mutabile is a tree reaching a height of about 25 
meters and a diameter of 45 centimeters. The leaves are al- 
ternate and compound, with rather large, smooth, alternate * 
leaflets, which are pointed at both ends. The flowers are small 
and occur in considerable numbers on simple or compound in- 
florescences. The fruits are red, about 4 centimeters in length, 
and completely covered with numerous, rather soft projections. 
The flesh is white, abundant, juicy, and of very good flavor. It 
surrounds a single, rather large seed. 

This species is distributed from northern Luzon to southern 
Mindanao and is very common in Luzon. 

Family BOMBACACEAE 

Genus CEIBA 

CEIBA PENTANDRA Gaertn. (Fig. 51). Cotton Tree or Kapok. ' 

Local names: Balios (Bulacan) ; basangldi (Ilocos Sur, Abra) ; boboi, 
bubia (Bulacan, Bataan, Cavite, Batangas, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Min- 
doro) ; boiboi (Capiz) ; bi'dak (Abra, Zambales, Pampanga, Bulacan, Ca- 
vite) ; bidak-dondol (Cebu) ; bidak-kastila (Pampanga) ; biUak-sino (Bu- 
lacan, Bataan, Cavite, Batangas, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Mindoro) ; 
dogdol (Cebu); doldol (Leyte, Samar, Iloilo, Antique, Capiz, Bohol, Cebu, c 
Cuyo Islands) ; dondol (Cebu) ; gdpas (Misamis) ; kdpah (Zambales) ; 
kdpak (Bulacan, Rizal, Bohol) ; kdpas (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Zambales) ; 
kdpas-sangldi (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Abra) ; kapok or kapok (Tarlac, Sor- 
sogon, Masbate, Davao and other parts of Mindanao, Basilan, Sulu group) ; 
kapos (Pangasinan) ; kasangldi (Pangasinan) ; kayo (Camarines, Albay, 
Sorsogon, Samar, Leyte, Capiz, Antique, Iloilo, Cebu, Bohol) ; sangldi 
(Abra). 

KAPOK OIL 

An oil resembling cotton-seed oil is extracted from the kapok 
seeds. It has a greenish-yellow color and a taste and odor which 
is not unpleasant. The oil is used for the manufacture of soap 
and as a substitute for cotton-seed oil. Concerning the use of 

* Heyne, K., De Nuttige Planten van Nederlandsch-Indie, Volume 3 
(1917), page 162. 



SEED OILS 



149 




FIGURE 51. CEIBA PENTANDRA (KAPOK), THE SOURCE OF KAPOK OIL. 



150 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

kapok oil in Marseilles for soap making, the American Per- 
fumer * states : 

* * * The seed is treated in two mills, both of which are chiefly 
devoted to the crushing of other seeds. Only one pressing is the rule, 
although in some cases hot water is poured over the residue, which is then 
pressed again. The oil is then filtered, but it requires neither bleaching, 
deodorizing, nor any other treatment. In the Marseilles mills the average 
yield in oil from this seed is about 15 per cent. The price of the oil 
follows closely that of industrial peanut oil. It takes about I62 pounds 
of kapok to make a gallon of oil. 

Lewkowitsch f says the seeds have the following average 
composition : 

Per cent. 

Oil 24.20 

Water 11.85 

Ash 5.22 

Crude fiber 23.91 

Albuminoids 18.92 

Carbohydrates, etc 15.90 

Experiments carried out by the Philippine Bureau of Agricul- 
ture indicate that the fresh cake is valuable as stock food. Ac- 
cording to Richmond and del Rosario % the product much resem- 
bles ground linseed in food value. 

Kapok oil has the following constants (Lewkowitsch) : f 

Specific gravity at 15' C 0.9235 

Solidifying point 29.6° 

Saponification value (Mgrms KOH) 181-205 

Iodine value 117.9 

Maumene test 95 

Refractive index 51.3 

The oil consists of a mixture of fatty acids, about 70 per cent 
of which is liquid, while 30 per cent is palmitic acid, which is 
a solid. 

Ceiba pentandra is a slender tree 15 meters or less in height. 
The trunk is armed with large, scattered spines. The branches 
are borne in horizontal whorls which are very characteristic. 
The capsules are about 15 centimeters long, and 5 centimeters 
thick. They contain black seeds imbedded in fine, silky hairs. 

*The American Perfumer, Volume 10 (1915-1916), page 298. 

t Lewkowitsch, J., Oils, fats, and waxes (1915). 

t Richmond, G. F. and Rosario, M. V. del, Commercial utilization of 
some Philippine oil-bearing seeds: preliminary paper. Philippine Journal 
of Science, Volume 2 (1907), page 445. 



SEED OILS 




FIGURE 52. STERCULIA FOETIDA (KALUMPaNG), THE SOURCE OF KALUMPANG OIL. 

XL 



152 



PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 



The fibers surrounding the seeds are soft, elastic, and immune 
to moths, and therefore very suitable for stuffing pillows, mat- 
tresses, etc., for which purposes they are extensively employed. 
This species is commonly cultivated, particularly along the 
highways and in towns, in all parts of the Philippines. 

Family STERCULIACEAE 

Genus STERCULIA 
STERCULIA FOETIDA L. (Figs. 52, 53) . Kalumpang. 

Local names: Bangdr (Abra) ; hangcit, hiihiir (Ilocos Sur) ; bohog 
(Iloilo, Palawan); bioTgog (Cagayan) ; kalumjmng (Nueva Ecija, Tayabas, 
Pampanga, Rizal, Bataan, Manila, Laguna, Camarines, Iloilo, Mindoro, 
Palawan, Cotabato, Apo Island); kurumpdng (Davao). 

KALUMPANG OIL 

The fruits of this species and of several others of the genus 
contain a number of peanut-like, oily kernels. They are more 
or less laxative when eaten raw. An oil extracted from them 
i? used locally for illuminating purposes. In some parts of the 
Islands the oil mixed with white earth is utilized as a paint. 
The oil is a bland, sweet, yellow oil, having a rather high melting 
point. Brill and Agcaoili * analyzed the dry, shelled seeds and 
determined the chemical constants of the oil obtained from them. 
The results are given in Tables 25 and 26. These tables also 
include the results obtained by Bolton and Jesson.f 

Table 25. — Composition of dry, shelled, kalumpang seeds. 



Constituents. 


Analysis by 


Bureau 

of 
Science. 


Bolton 

and 
Jesson. 


Fat (by extraction of dry seeds) . 


Per cent. 
51.78 
21.61 
12.10 
5.00 
5.51 
3.90 


Per cent. 
52.0 


Protein (Nx6.25) 


Starch 




Sugars 




Cellulose, etc. (by difference) 


Ash 









* Brill, H. C, and Agcaoili, F., Philippine oil-bearing seeds and their 
properties: II. Philippine Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 10 
(1915), page 108. 

t Analyst, Volume 40 (1915), page 3. 



SEED OILS 



153 








|liii|iiiijini|iiii|iiii|iin|iiii|iiimiii|iiii|iin|iiii|iiiijiiii|iiii|.|iii|iiii|iiii|iMi|ij{i|iiii|ii 



[TT|Tr[i r|Tr]TijrrnT|TiTrr| 1 1 j i i ri rrnTnynTTTlTTTTr; ir 'r; 1 1 ; ; nrrri 1 1 

I II ' 2! 3! ' 4' 5 61 



|S i* 1^ |2 I' i^ I I'* I I* I P '^ ' I I' 




FIGURE 53. FRUITS OF STERCULIA FOETIDA (KALUMPaNG), THE SOURCE OF KALUM- 

pang oil. 



154 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

Table 26. — Chemical constants of kalumpang oil. 



Constants. 



Analysis by 



Bureau 

of 
Science. 



Bolton 

and 
Jesson. 



Specific gravity at 30°C — 

Butyro refractometer reading at 40°C 

Iodine value (Hanus) 

Reichert-Meissl value 

Saponification number -- --- - 

Free fatty acids (oleic) per cent 

Acid value cc. N/10 KOH 



0.9254 
63.64 
76.04 
2.10 
212. 01 
0.45 
0.30 



75.8 



193.8 
1.0 



According to Professor DuMez: * 

The oil appears to resemble olive oil very much in its physiological 
action. Administered to dogs in doses of 1.5 to 3 cubic centimeters per 
kilogram body weight, it acts as a mild laxative. It is nontoxic and has 
no irritating action. It can be used in the same manner as olive oil and 
should be especially useful for culinary purposes. 

Sterculia foetida is a spreading tree reaching a height of 20 
meters or more. The leaves are crowded at the ends of the 
branches. They are compound, having seven to nine leaflets 
borne in a whorl at the end of the petiole. The leaflets 
are 12 to 18 centimeters long. The flowers are rank-smelling, 
dull yellowish or purplish, and 2 to 2.5 centimeters in diameter. 
The fruit is large, woody, red, nearly smooth, ovoid, and about 
10 centimeters long. It contains 10 to 15 seeds, which are about 
2 centimeters long. 

The wood of Sterculia foetida is used for cheap and tem- 
porary construction, box-lumber, etc. It is rarely cut for lum- 
ber except occasionally by larger operators, with the cheapest 
grade of miscellaneous lumber. The wood is soft to very soft 
and light to very light. The durability is very poor. 

This species is found throughout the Philippines, and is 
distributed from eastern Africa to India through Malaya to 
northern Australia. 

Family GUTTIFERAE 

Genus CALOPHYLLUM 
CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM L. (Fig. 54). BiTAOG or Palomaria 

DE LA PlAYA. 

Local names: Batdraii (Cagayan, Batanes) ; bitdog (Babuyanes, Abra, 
Union, Zambales, Ilocos Norte and Sur, Bataan, Leyte, Agusan) ; bitdoi 

* Brill, H. C, and Agcaoili, F., Philippine oil-bearing seeds and their 
properties: II. Philippine Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 10 
(1915), page 109. 



SEED OILS 



155 




J.ViUn daL 



FIGURE 54. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM (BITaOG OR PALOMARIA DE LA PLAYA), THE 
SOURCE OF PALOMARIA OIL. 



156 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 



« 



(Pangasinan) ; bitong (Bataan) ; bit-tdog (Cagayan, Camiguin, Isabela) ; 
bittog (Bataan) ; butdlau (Batangas) ; dagkdlan (Isabela) ; dangkdlan (Ba- 
taan, Tayabas, Camarines, Albay, Mindoro, Masbate, Negros, Capiz, Lanao, 
Zamboanga, Burias Island, Butuan, Cotabato, Palawan) ; dangkdan (Da- 
vao) ; palomaria (Mindoro, Tayabas, Bataan, Zambales, Pangasinan, Nueva 
Ecija, Cagayan, Manila, Cebu, Zamboanga) ; palomaria de la playa (Bataan, 
Laguna, Camarines, Mindoro, Misamis, Zamboanga, Basilan) ; pamittaogen 
(Palaui Island); tambo-tambo (Jolo) ; vutdlau (Batanes). 

BITAOG OIL 

The seeds yield bitaog oil which is greenish-yellow in color 
and which in some districts is used as an illuminant. Each tree 
yields several bushels of nuts per year. According to Richmond 
and del Rosario * 70 to 75 per cent of this oil can be extracted* 
from the kernels. They say that the oil is called domba and in 
Indo-English, improperly, laurel-nut oil. Concerning its uses 
they write: 

* * * The oil is not serviceable as an edible fat, since it contains a 
poisonous resin to which the color and odor are due. On the other hand, 
it finds application as a natural remedy in skin diseases and rheumatism, 
and it is used for that purpose in many districts of India; it is exported in 
considerable amounts from Travancore, particularly from Burma, and 
under the name of "udilool" it has been experimentated with in Europe 
for some time in the treatment of rheumatism. 

The oil is said to be excellent for making soap. 

G. Fenler f investigated the oil obtained from the nuts of c 
Calophyllum inopJujllum and states that it is greenish-yellow in 
color, has a bitter, pungent taste, and is soluble in all proportions 
in the usual solvents, but is insoluble in absolute alcohol. An 
examination of the oil gave the following constants: 

Specific gravity at 15° C 0.942 

Reichert-Meissl number 13 * 

Acid value 28.45 

Saponification value 196 

Iodine value 92.8 

When heated with caustic soda the oil yields a greenish resin 
of semiliquid consistency, soluble in alcohol. The fatty acids 
consist largely of palmitic, oleic, and stearic acid. 

Crevost % states that Lefeuvre, by neutralizing the oil of Calo- 
phyllum inophjjllum with caustic potash and separating the soaps 

* Richmond, G. F., and Rosario, M. V. del. Commercial utilization of 
some Philippine oil-bearing seeds: preliminary paper. Philippine Journal 
of Science, Section A, Volume 2 (1907), page 444. 

t Chemiker Zeitschrift, Volume 29 (1905), page 15. • 

J Crevost, Ch., Bulletin Economique de I'lndochine, New Series, Volume 
.8 (1906), page 394. 



SEED OILS 



157 



thus formed from the remaining oil, found that bitaog oil con- 
tains 71.55 per cent of fatty oil and 28.45 per cent of resin. 
The resin is dark brown in color and melts at 30' to 35°. It 
is soluble in benzine, carbon disulphide, petroleum ether, alcohol, 
and other organic solvents. The resin had an iodine value of 
125.2 and the acid number (milligrams of caustic potash re- 
quired to neutralize one gram of resin) was 180.8. 

Since bitaog oil consists of a resin dissolved in a neutral oil, 
it is really a natural varnish and may be useful in the varnish 
industry. 

Watt * says that the nuts are collected twice a year in India, 
»and that they yield 60 per cent of oil. 

The seeds of other species of Calojjhyllum, especially Calo- 
phyllum blancoi PI. and Tr., also yield an oil used for illum- 
inating purposes. 

Calophjjllum inophyllum has been grown sucessfully in planta- 
tions at Los Baiios. In most cases the seeds showed fairly high 
percentages of germination. The average rates of growth of 
considerable numbers of trees are given in Table 27. 

Table 27. — Growth of Calophyllum inophyllum (bitaog) in plantations 

at Los Banos, Laguna. 



Age. 



Diam- 
eter. 



Height. 



Years. 



1.45 
1.93 
3.35 
4.39 



According to Crevost f the growth of this species seems to 
be very rapid, and at the end of two years some seedlings begin 
to produce fruits. He says that in less than four or five years 
one can hardly count on anything like a normal, annual produc- 
tion which would perhaps be about 20 to 40 kilos according to the 
age of the tree. Several highways in Cochinchina and Annam 
are entirely bordered with this species. 

Calophyllwm i7io})hylliim is usually a medium-sized or large 
tree with a very short bole and dense, wide-spreading crown. 
It occurs on sandy beaches throughout the Islands. The bark 

* Watt, George, The commercial products of India, (1908). 
t Crevost, Ch., Bulletin Economique de I'lndochine, New Series, Volume 
8 (1906), page 392. 



158 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

is 12 to 20 millimeters thick, brown, with a decided yellow 
tinge, and has a tendency to divide into distinct ridges, which 
are often broken into irregular rectangular patches by cross 
fissures. The inner bark is pink to yellowish, with concentric 
lines of darker color. When the bark is cut, a sticky, yellowish 
sap exudes. The fruit is the size of a walnut. It has an outer 
fleshy portion and contains a thin-shelled seed with a hard, oily 
kernel. 

This species is probably distributed in all parts of the Phil- 
ippines bordering on the coast. 

Family DIPTEROCARPACEAE 

A fat known as Borneo tallow is obtained from certain dip-* 
terocarp trees, especially Shorca, Hopea, and Isoptera. Hefter * 
states that Borneo tallow is used in the Sunda Islands as food 
and for making soap. He says that it has a light green or yellow 
color and, when in a fresh condition, a pleasant taste, somewhat 
like that of coco butter. 

According to Foxworthy,t this fat is used for manufacturing 
candles, for cooking purposes, and for lubricating machinery. 
He further says that it is derived chiefly from Shorea and Isop- 
tera, and that the seeds of these species have a local value in 
Borneo of 7.50 dollars per picul. 

Two species which Hefter says yield this product, Shorea ba- 
langeran (Korth.) Dyer and Isoptera borneensis Scheff., have 
been reported from the Philippines. 

A tree that is called Shorea balangeran (gisok) is distributed 
in the Philippines from Luzon to Mindanao, but has never been 
collected in fruit. Foxworthy J says : 

Our material credited to this species resembles very closely that shown , 
in Korthals' original figure [Verh. Nat. Gesch. Bot. (1848) t. 7] in leaf and 
flower characters, except that there are more than fifteen stamens, in some 
cases about thirty, and the appendage to the connective is ciliate. The 
style is also shorter than that shown in the figure. I have not seen the 
type of Shorea balangeran and thus do not feel that it is desirable to 
describe our form as a new species. Much of our material is sterile. 
The fruit has not yet been collected. 

The only records we have of the occurrence of Isoptera bor- 
neensis in the Philippines are seven collections from the District 
of Zamboanga, Mindanao, and from Camarines. 

* Hefter, G., Technologie der Fette und Ole, Volume 2 (1908), page 680. 

t Foxworthy, F. W., Minor forest products and jungle produce. British 
North Borneo Bulletin No. 1 (1916), page 57. * 

J Foxworthy, F. W., Philippine Dipterocarpaceae, II. Philippine 
Journal of Science, Section C, Volume 13 (1918), page 187. 



SEED OILS 159 

It would seem that it might be worth while to examine the 
seeds of other Philippine species of Shorea and also of species 
of Hopea, as there are in the Philippines 21 species of Shorea 
and 13 of Hopea. 

Family FLACOURTIACEAE 

Genus PANGIUM 

PANGIUM EDULE Reinw. Pangi. 

PITJOENG OIL 

A description, figure, and the local names of this species are 
given in the bulletin on edible plants. 

Pangium edule has seeds which yield about 50 per cent of 
pitjoeng, or samaun, oil having the following constants (Lew- 
kowitsch) : 

Specific gravity 0.937 

Saponification value 178-183 

Iodine value 89.94 

Titer test of fatty acids 44.4 

According to Lewkowitsch: * 

The seeds contain a cyanogenetic glycoside of which some passes into 
the oil when it is prepared by the natives, and is only removed by pro- 
longed boiling. The oil prepared in a very primitive fashion by the 
natives of Java, by heating the dry seeds and passing the mass between 
» boards, is used as an edible oil. 

Hefter t says that this oil is used as an illuminant and for 
making soap. 

Family LECYTHIDACEAE 

Genus BARRINGTONIA 

, BARRINGTONIA ASIATICA (L.) Kurz. BOTONG. 

Local names: Bahihitoon (Guimaras Island); hitoon (Surigao) ; hoo- 
ton, botong (Tayabas) ; boton (Tayabas, Camarines, Albay, Zamboanga) ; 
lugo (Cagayan) ; palawpalau (Negros). 

BOTON OIL 

Watt t states that : 

In the Moluccas a lamp-oil is said to be expressed from the seeds of 
this plant. {Treasury of Botany.) 



* Lewkowitsch, J., Chemical technology and analysis of oils, fats, and 
waxes, Volume 2 (1914), page 496. 

t Hefter, G., Technologie der Fette und Ole (1908), page 687. 

% Watt, G., Dictionary of the economic products of India, Volume 1 
(1885), page 403. 



160 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

According to Hefter,* Schadler reports that the seeds of this 
species yield an oil which should be good for illumination. 

Barvingto7iia asiatica is a tree 8 to 15 meters in height. The 
leaves are 20 to 40 centimeters long, without individual stalks, 
shiny, larger near the apex than near the base, the apex rounded, 
and the base somewhat pointed. The flowers are very large. 
The petals are four in number, white, oblong, 7 to 8 centimeters 
long, and 3 to 4 centimeters wide. The stamens are very nu- 
merous, slender, united at the base, 10 to 12 centimeters long, 
white below, and shading to purple above. The fruit is sharply 
four- or rarely five-angled, 8 to 14 centimeters long, 8 to 12 cen- 
timeters thick, and contain a single large seed. 

This species is distributed along the seashore throughout the 
Archipelago. 

BARRINGTONIA RACEMOSA (L.) Blume. PUTAT. 

Local names: Kutkiit timbalong (Zamboanga) ; paling (Cagayan) ; pu- 
tad (Mindoro) ; pnfat (Bataan, Manila, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines, 
Mindoro, Polillo, Ticao, Sibuyan, Negros, Cotabato, Zamboanga). 

PUTAT OIL 

According to Hefter,* Schadler reports that the seeds of this 
species yield an oil which should be good for illumination. 

Baj'ringtonia racemosci is a shrub or small tree reaching a 
height of 10 meters. The leaves are crowded at the ends of the 
branches, smooth, 10 to 30 centimeters long, pointed at both « 
ends ; the margins toothed. The flowers are white, or pink. 
The petals are 2 to 2.5 centimeters long. The stamens are very 
numerous and are 3 to 4 centimeters long. The fruit is ovoid 
to oblong ovoid, 5 to 6 centimeters long, somewhat four-angled, 
and green or purple. 

This species is found throughout the Philippines in open low-* 
lands and thickets near the seashore. 

Family COMBRETACEAE 

Genus TERMINALIA 
TERMINALIA CATAPPA L. (Fig. 55). TaliSAI. 

Local names: Ahnendra de Indias (Spanish); dalisai (Cagayan); logo 
(Cagayan, Ilocos Norte and Sur, Abra, Union) ; salaisdii (Benguet) ; 
salisai (Zambales, Bataan) ; savidug (Batanes) ; talisai (Cagayan, Tarlac, 
Pampanga, Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal, Manila, Zambales, Lagnina, Tayabas, 
Camarines, Mindoro, Albay, Sorsogon, Iloilo, Negros, Cotabato, Davao, 
Palawan); talisi (Basilan) ; yalisai (Tayabas). 

* Hefter, G., Technologie der Fette und Ole, Volume 2 (1908), page 331. ^ 



SEED OILS 





\-P 



l^ 



■K^ 



"l : ,// 



FIGUR 



E 55. TERMINALIA CATAPPA (TALfSAI), THE SOURCE OF INDIAN ALMOND OIL. 



Xi. 



168837—11 



152 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

INDIAN ALMOND OIL 

The kernel is edible and yields about 50 per cent of Indian 
almond oil, which is a sweet, savory, fixed oil. It closely resem- 
bles the oil of sweet almonds, for which it could well be sub- 
stituted. 

According to Lewkowitsch * the seeds of Terminalia catappa 
(country almond) contain 48.3 per cent of oil. Hooper f states 
that this oil has the following constants: 

Specific gravity at 15° C 0.9206 

Melting point, °C 3.5 

Saponification value 203.04 

Per cent. 

Iodine value 81.8 

Insoluble acids + unsaponifiable 95.2 

Titer test, °C 42 

Acid value 7.77 

Concerning this oil, Watt J say : 

The kernels yield a valuable oil, similar to almond oil in flavour, odour, 
and specific gravity, but a little more deeply coloured; it deposits stearine 
on keeping:. It possesses the advantage of not becoming rancid so readily 
as true almond oil, and if it could be produced cheaply would doubtless 
compete successfully with it. As the tree is abundant everywhere and 
the fruit could be doubtless obtained very cheaply, "Indian almond oil" 
appears to merit the attention of dealers. It was first brought prominently 
to notice by a Mr. A. T. Smith of Jessor, who in 1843 wrote to the 
Agr.-Horticultural Society of India an account of its properties and method 
of preparation. Oil, made experimentally by him, was expressed in the< 
common native mill — a sort of pestle and mortar — from some fruit gathered 
during a few mornings from under the trees in the neighborhood. After 
a sufficient quantity had been gathered and allowed to dry in the sun 
for a few days, which facilitates breaking the nut, four coolies were 
set to work with small hammers, to separate the kernels from their 
shells. In four days they broke a sufficient quantity for one mill, 
viz., 6 seers. This quantity put into the mill produced in three hours* 
about 3 pucka seers of oil. Mr. Smith remarks that the actual pressing 
of the oil is of no consideration, since the value of the oil-cake, to feed 
pigs, etc., is sufficient to cover the expense, but that the breaking of the 
nuts is a tedious and costly operation, and is a consideration requiring 
particular attention, with a view to its reduction, if m.anufacture of the 
oil on an extensive scale should be attempted. The product of the experi- 
ment, filtered through blotting paper, was of the colour of pale sherry, a 
circumstance which Mr. Smith explains is due to the rind being allowed 

* Lewkowitsch, J., Oils, fats, and waxes. Volume 3 (1915), page 451. 
t Hooper, D., Annual report, Indian Museum, 1907-1908, page 13. 
t Watt, G., A dictionary of the economic products of India, Volume 6, 
Part 4 (1893), page 23. 



SEED OILS 



163 




FIGURE 56. BASSIA BETIS (BeTIS), THE SOURCE OF BeTIS OIL. 



164 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

to remain on the keraels. He concludes by remarking on the ornamental 
nature and utility of the tree for many other purposes, and recommends 
that it should be more extensively planted. A sample of the oil thus 
prepared was submitted for examination to Dr. Mouat, who reported as 
follows: — "I have compared the specimen with a good muster of the or- 
dinary European almond oil in my possession, and find that in taste, smell, 
and specific gravity, the former is very similar to the latter, but is deeper 
in colour, becomes turbid in keeping, and deposits a quantity of white 
stearic matter. For most ordinary purposes, medicinal and otherwise, the 
former, I think, might profitably be substituted for the latter in this 
country, and, if expressed with greater care and freed from every impurity, 
might become an article of commercial value and importance" (Journ. 
Agri.-Hort. Soc. Ind., ii.) . Though easily made edible and pleasant in 
flavour, it appears to have been entirely neglected by the Natives, who are 
ignorant as to its existence. ' 

Terminalia catappa is a tree reaching a height of 25 meters. 
The leaves are 10 to 25 centimeters long, smooth, shiny, some- 
what abruptly pointed at the tip, larger near the tip than near 
the base, tapering to a narrow, rounded or heart-shaped base. 
The flowers are small, white, and on axillary spikes 6 to 18 cen- 
timeters long. 

This species is distributed near the seashore from northern 
Luzon to southern Mindanao, and is cultivated to some extent 
in and about Manila and many provincial towns as a shade tree. 

Family SAPOTACEAE 

« 

Genus BASS I A 

BASSIA BETIS (Blanco) Merr. (Figs. 56, 57). Betis. 

Local names: Banitis (Camarines) ; betis (Rizal, Tayabas, Camarines) ; 
betis-laldki (Tayabas) ; vxanilig (Moro, Cotabato) ; pdsak (Manila lumber- 
yards) ; jnanga (Cagayan, Isabela). 

BETIS OIL * 

The fruit of this tree contains an oil used locally as an 
illuminant. 

Bassia betis is a tree reaching a height of about 30 meters 
and a diameter of about 1 meter. The leaves are smooth on the 
upper surface and very hairy below. They are pointed at both 
ends and about 20 to 25 centimeters in length. The flowers and 
fruits are borne in rounded clusters. The stalks of the flowers 
and fruits are about 3 centimeters long. The flower, exclusive 
of the long style, is about 1.5 centimeters in length. The fruit 
is somewhat oval, and 3 or 4 centimeters in length. 

This species is distributed from Luzon to Mindanao. 



SEED OILS 



165 




FIGURE 57. TRUNK OF BASSIA BETIS (BeTIS). 



166 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

Genus PALAQUIUM 
PALAQUIUM PHILIPPENSE C. B. Rob. Malakmalak. 

MALAKMALAK OIL 

A description, figure, and the local names of this species are 
given in the bulletin on edible plants. 

According to Blanco * the seeds yield a limpid, odorous oil 
which is employed in food and as an illuminant. 

Several writers mention an oil which is said to be obtained in 
other countries from Palaquium oleosiim Blanco. What this plant 
may be is doubtful as Blanco described no such species and no 
such name is listed in Index Kewensis. The use of the name 
Palaquium oleosum may be due to confusion with Palaquium 
oleiferum Blanco, which is a synonym of Palaquium philip- 
pense, a species apparently confined to the Philippines. 

Family APOCYNACEAE 

Genus CERBERA 
CERBERA MANGHAS Linn. Baraibai. 

BARAIBAI OIL 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the bulletin on mangrove swamps. 

Hefter f says that the seeds yield an illuminating oil. 

Family PEDALIACEAE 

Genus SESAMUM 

SESAMUM ORIENTALE L. (Fig. 58). SESAME or LiNGA. 

Local names: Laiigis (Pangasinan, Pampanga) ; langd (Camarines, Al- 
bay) ; lengngd or lingiigd (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Abra, Pangasinan) ; linga 
(Tagalog provinces, Marinduque, Misamis, Cuyo Islands, Zamboanga) ; 
luiigd (Capiz and other Bisayan provinces). 

BARAIBAI OIL. 

The whole seeds of Sesamum onentale are utilized locally by 
Chinese bakers in making various cakes and sweetmeats. 

Sesame oil, also known as pil, or gingelly, is obtained by ex- 
pressing the seeds of the sesame plant. The yield of oil thus 
obtained varies from about 50 to 57 per cent. The white or 
yellow seeded varieties furnish the best grade of oil, while the 
dark red, brown, or black seeded varieties give an oil of some- 
what inferior grade. Sesame oil has a pale yellow color and a 
pleasant odor and taste. 

* Blanco, M., Flora de Filipinas (1845), page 282. 

t Hefter, G., Technologie der Fette und Ole, Volume 2, page 501. 



SEED OILS 







FIGURE 5S. SESAMUM ORIENTALE, THE SOURCE OF SESAME OIL. Xi. 



168 



PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 



The Philippine exports of sesame seed and oil for several years 
are given in Table 28. 

Table 28. — Amount and value of sesame seeds and oil exported from the 
Philippines from 19H to 1918. 



Year. 





Seeds. 


Oil. 




Amount. 


Value. 


Amount. 


1 
Value. 




Kilo- 
grams. 

53, 135 

62, 881 

316, 198 

168,878 

120,802 


Pesos. 

7,328 

7,464 

45. 675 

27. 558 

30. 661 


Kilo- 
grams. 


Pesos. 






















6,248 


1,250 





1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 



The best quality of sesame oil is obtained from the first ex- 
pression in the cold, and is used for edible purposes such as the 
manufacture of margarine, which is an artificial butter or butter 
substitute. Oils of the second or third expression are employed 
particularly in soap making. After the free fatty acids have 
been removed from the lower grades, they are likewise useful 
for illuminating and lubricating purposes. 

The oil cake contains about 9 per cent of oil. It serves as an 
excellent cattle food. Oil cake which has been extracted with * 
solvents serves as fertilizer. 

Before the war, sesame seeds were chiefly crushed on the con- 
tinent of Europe. In several continental countries the inclusion 
of a certain quantity of sesame oil in margarine was compul- 
sory, to facilitate its detection when used to adulterate butter. 
This factor raised the price, with the result that the British ' 
margarine producers substituted other oils, said to be cheaper 
and equally good. The seed is, however, now crushed in Eng- 
land, and it has been predicted that this practice will continue 
and extend if the price of the seeds remains at about the same 
level as that of the other oil seeds.* 

In India and other eastern countries, the oil is expressed by 
primitive methods and employed largely in cooking, for anointing 
the body, and for lamps. About 400,000 tons of sesame seeds 
per year are used in India ; in Burma about 100,000 tons. The 
average annual export from India is about 100,000 tons. India 
also exports about 180,000 tons of oil annually. The total im- 



* The oil-seed industry of Rhodesia. 
Volume 15 (1917), page 477. 



Bulletin of the Imperial Institute, 



SEED OILS 169 

» 

ports of sesame into Europe in 1913 amounted to about 250,000 
tons. In India the average value per ton of seeds is about 150 
pesos. In Indo-China the yield of seeds varies from 300 to 800 
kilos per hectare.* 

According to The American Perfunier: f 

The oil from the black variety of sesame is generally stated to be more 
suitable for medicinal purposes than the white. It is also extensively em- 
ployed in the manufacture of Indian perfumes, and for this purpose the 
perfume is frequently extracted by the seeds direct — layers of the seeds 
being placed between layers of flowers, etc. Thus a favorite jasmine 
extract in India is made by layers of sesame seed wetted in water being 
placed alternately with layers of jasmine flowers, all being covered with a 
cloth and left for 12 to 18 hours, after which an oil is obtained that has 
all the scent of the flower. 

As regards the composition of sesame oil, Mitchell t says : 

It consists, in the main, of the glycerides of oleic and linolic acid, with 
smaller quantities of the glycerides of solid fatty acids, including stearine, 
palmitin and myristin. The imsaponifiable matter (1 to 1.4 per cent.) 
consists of a phytosterol, a crystalline dextrorotatory substance, sesamin, 
and a substance termed sesa'mol, which reacts with furfural and hydro- 
chloric acid. 

Thorpe § in discussing the composition of sesame oil states : 

Sesame oil contains from 12 to 14 p. c. of solid acids, the remainder 
consists of oleic and linoleic acids. Sesame oil is dextro-rotatory, a prop- 
erty which may supply a useful additional means of identifying the oil. 
The optical activity is no doubt due to the presence of phytosterol and 
sesamin which forai the bulk of the unsaponifiable matter in sesame oil. 
In addition thereto, there occurs in the unsaponifiable matter a thick non- 
crystallisable oil which gives the characteristic colour reaction known as 
the "Baudouin." 

Lewkowitsch || gives the constants of sesame oil: 

Specific gravity (15°), 0.9230 to 0.9237. 

Solidifying point -4° to -6°. 

Saponification value (Mgrms KOH) 188.5 to 190.4. 

Iodine value 106.9 to 107.8. 

Maumene test 63° to 72°. 

Refractive index (15°), 1.4748-1.4762. 

Oleo-refractometer (22°), +13° to +17°. 

Butyro-refractometer (25°), 68° to 68.2°. 

* Indian trade in oil seeds. Bulletin of the Imperial Institute, Volume 
15 (1917), page 405. 

fThe American Perfumer, Volume 10 (1915-1916), page 244. 

J Mitchell, C. A., Edible oils and fats (1918), page 69. 

§ Thorpe, E., Dictionary of applied chemistry. Volume 4 (1912), page 
661. 

II Lewkowitsch, J., Oils, fats, and waxes, Volume 2 (1915), page 210. 



170 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

Thorpe * states that sesame oil cake has the following aver- 
age composition: 

Per cent. 

Oil 14.63 

Moisture 7.65 

Proteins 36.14 

Ash 13.17 

Crude fiber 4.83 

Carbohydrates 23.58 

Sesamum orientate is an erect, annual herb 50 to 80 centi- 
meters or more in height. The leaves are 3 to 10 centimeters 
long, the lower often lobed, the middle ones toothed, the upper- 
most almost entire. The petiole is from 1 to 5 centimeters long. 
The corolla is about 3 centimeters long, hairy, whitish, or with 
purplish, red, or yellow marks. The capsule is about 2.5 milli- 
meters long and split half-way or quite to the base. 

This plant is widely cultivated in the Philippines and is occa- 
sionally spontaneous. It is probably a native of tropical Africa, 
but is now widely distributed in tropical and subtropical coun- 
tries. 

The black-seeded variety of Sesamum orientale has been grown 
in the Philippine Islands as a minor crop for many years; the 
white-seeded variety, which produces a finer grade of oil, has 
been recently introduced. 

* Thorpe, E., Dictionary of applied chemistry. Volume 4 (1912), page 
661. 



ESSENTIAL OILS 

The natural essential oils are the volatile, odoriferous oils 
obtained from plants. By volatile is meant that if one of these 
oils is exposed to the air it will gradually evaporate. These 
volatile oils may occur in the bark, root, leaves, or other parts 
of the plant, but usually they are most abundant in the fruits 
or flowers. Many of these essential oils have a pleasant taste 
and a very fragrant odor, like that of fruits or flowers. They 
are employed extensively in the manufacture of various sub- 
stances for which there is a great demand; as in perfumes, 
toilet waters, scents (face and sachet powders), and in essences 
which serve as flavoring materials for confectionery and for 
beverages like lemonade and liqueurs. They are also used in 
medicinal preparations to conceal nauseous odors and tastes. 

Perfumes have been in vogue since the earliest times, and 
records show that the ancient Egyptians introduced perfumes 
in their religious services. In certain countries vast tracts of 
land are devoted to the cultivation of flowers from which 
fragrant perfumes are obtained. In southern France large 
quantities of various flowers are raised commercially for the 
production of natural perfumes. In the French Riviera district 
alone the annual revenue from cultivated flowers such as 
roses, carnations, and violets, is over ^24,000,000. Roses are 
cultivated extensively in Bulgaria, while in the Philippines ilang- 
ilang is grown to a certain extent. In the Philippines there are 
a number of perfume plants which are the bases of considerable 
industries in other countries, but which are not so utilized in 
the Philippines. Among these are patchouli, lemon grass, and 
vetiver. 

Various methods such as steam-distillation, extraction with 
fats (preparation of flower pomades), and extraction with vola- 
tile solvents are used to obtain the perfume oils from flowers. 

As in the case of seed oils, the purity of essential oils is ascer- 
tained by determining certain essential-oil constants such as 
the specific gravity, optical rotation, and especially the ester 
number, as the value of many oils depends largely upon the 
presence of a quantity of certain esters. The real value of an 
oil, however, is determined by the exact odor it possesses. This 

171 



172 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

fragrance is due to certain chemical compourids, numbers of 
which exist in the flowers only in very minute quantities. Many 
of the chemical substances inherent in plants may be prepared 
synthetically. However, the odor of these synthetics is quite 
different from that of the flowers, for the latter's scent can be 
secured only when all the substances contained in the flower 
are combined in the proper proportions. The fragrant flower 
was the first perfume and still is the first. Although a large 
number of synthetic perfumes are manufactured, the con- 
sumption of natural perfumes is increasing. The former are 
frequently used to fortify the natural perfumes and are also 
mixed with them to produce new blends. 

Family GRAMINEAE 

Genus ANDROPOGON 
ANDROPOGON CITRATUS DC. TanglaD or Lemon GRASS. 

Local names: Bardniw (Pangasinan) ; tangldd (Tagalog, Bikol). 

LEMON-GRASS OIL 

This grass is frequently cultivated, especially in India and 
Ceylon, for its fragrant leaves. Bacon * remarks that in the 
Philippines : 

It is cooked with stale fish to improve the taste and is used as a flavor 
in wines and various sauces and spices; it is also used medicinally, being 
applied to the forehead and face as a cure for headache, and an infusion 
is held in the mouth to alleviate the suffering of toothache. 

The roots resemble ginger in flavor, though less pungent. 
They are used as a condiment and for perfuming hairwashes 
of gogo. 

When the grass is distilled it yields commercial lemon-grass 
oil, or Indian verbena oil, which has a reddish-yellow color and 
the intense odor and taste of lemons. Lemon-grass oil is used 
in making perfumes, especially ionone (synthetic essence of 
violets). 

According to Hood f about 100,000 pounds of lemon-grass oil 
are used annually in the United States and the consumption of 
it for the manufacture of ionone and other perfumery purposes 
is continually increasing. He describes the distillation of the 
grass as follows: 

* Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils, III. Philippine 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 4 (1909), page 111. 

t Hood, S. C, Possibility of the commercial production of lemon-grass 
oil in the United States. United States Department of Agriculture Bul- 
letin No. 442 (1917). 



ESSENTIAL OILS ]^73 

' The apparatus required for the distillation of lemon-grass oil does not 
differ from that in general use for the distillation of other volatile oils. 
Before distilling the plants it has been found advisable to run them 
through a fodder cutter, in order to permit closer packing in the retox-t. 
From the data at hand it is estimated that if the plants are cut into 2- 
inch lengths a retort will hold 100 pounds of material for every 6 cubic 
feet of space, but if the plants are put in whole the quantity which the 
retort can hold will be somewhat less. The closer packing, however, in no 
way facilitates distillation. 

In a retort having a capacity of 30 cubic feet a charge of 3,000 pounds 
can be distilled in 2 to 21 hours by the steam which may be readily gen- 
erated in a small farm boiler, and by the use of a larger volume of steam 
the time can be much reduced. 

After the oil has been distilled it should be freed from water so far as 
possible in a separatory funnel, then dried by shaking with anhydrous 
calcium chloride, and filtered. It should be stored in well-filled air-tight 
containers in as cold a place as possible until ready to be shipped to 
market. The shipping can be done in new and clean tin cans without 
injury to the product. 

Leach,* in discussing lemon extracts, states: 

The flavor of the cheap extracts is sometimes reinforced by the addi- 
tion of such substances as citral, oil of citronella, and oil of lemon grass, 
but minute quantities only of these pungent materials can be used, not 
exceeding 0.33 per cent in the case of citral, and 0.1 per cent in the case 
of the two last mentioned oils. 

According to Askinson,t essence of lemon grass consists of 
2 ounces of lemon-grass oil dissolved in 1 gallon of alcohol. 

Lemon-grass oil consists largely of citral and contains also 
small quantities of various substances such as methyl heptenone, 
and the terpenes, limonene and dipentene. The exact value of the 
oil depends chiefly upon the amount of citral it contains. High- 
grade oils contain about 70 to 80 per cent of citral. This is 
an aldehyde which occurs not only in lemon-grass oil, but also 
in lemon oil (the oil obtained from lemon peel) and in many 
other natural essential oils. 

Bacon investigated lemon grass grown at the Government ex- 
perimental station at Lamao, Bataan, in unfertilized soil. Con- 
cerning his results on these plots of grass he states : 

Lamao. — Planted February 14, 1908. First cutting July 29, 1908. Ob- 
tained 432 kilos grass, from 57 square meters of ground, distilled two days 
after cutting, the yield was 900 grams of oil (0.2 per cent) of the following 

properties: Specific gravity, ^5- =0-894; N — =1.4857; A ^=-[-8.1; 

citral = 79 per cent; Schimmel's test passes the oil. 

* Leach, A. E. Food inspection and analysis (1914), page 872. 
t Askinson, G. W., Perfumes and cosmetics, page 161. 



174 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

Bacon thought that lemon grass should be considered as a * 
possible catch crop for the first few years of new Philippine 
plantations. He did not recommend it as a permanent crop on 
account of the limited demand for the oil. The grass from 
which oil has been extracted is burned under the distilling boiler 
and the ashes distributed over the fields as fertilizers. The ex- 
hausted grass is also used for making paper. 

Lemon grass is a tufted perennial with leaves up to 1 meter 
in length and 1.4 centimeters in width. It is widely distributed, 
but not extensively cultivated in the Philippines and does not 
grow outside of cultivation. 

ANDROPOGON NARDUS var. HAMATULUS Hack. , 

CITRONELLA OIL 

The typical form of this species is cultivated in India, Ceylon, 
and other tropical countries for the essential oil obtained from 
it. It probably could be cultivated in the Philippines also. 
When this grass is distilled it yields a pale yellow oil, which 
has a very strong odor and is known commercially as citronella 
oil. 

As the variety hamatulus, which occurs in the Philippines, 
has not been investigated chemically, it is not certain that it 
will yield citronella oil. 

On account of its low price, citronella oil is used chieflly for 
perfuming cheap soaps and also as a protection against the ' 
bites of insects. An ointment containing 25 per cent of oil of 
citronella is an excellent protection against mosquitoes. Ac- 
cording to Parry * pure citronella oil has the following constants : 

Specific gravity 0.900 to 0.915 

Rotation 0° to -15° 

Sp. g-r. of 1st 10 per cent (distilled at 20-40 * 

mm.) — above 0.858 

Refractive index of same at 20° above 1.4570 

Solubility in 80 per cent alcohol to pass Schimmel's test 

Geraniol and citronella above 58 per cent 

(Calculated as total geraniol). 

Parry describes methods for preparing pure citronella oil. 
He also discusses methods for determining the purity and the 
presence of adulterants. 

Askinson f states that essence of citronella contains three 
ounces of citronella oil dissolved in one gallon of alcohol. 

* Parry, E. J. Chemistry of essential oils and artificial perfumes, 
(1908), page 171. 
t Askinson, G. W., Perfumes and cosmetics (1915), page 161. 



ESSENTIAL OILS 175 

. The variety hamatulus is of very local occurrence in the Phil- 
ippines, is nov^here cultivated, and is apparently not used in the 
Archipelago. It is distributed from the northern to the southern 
limits of the Philippines. 

ANDROPOGON ZIZANIOIDES (L.) Urb. (Fig. 59). Vetiver or MoRAS. 

Local names: Amora (Cebu) ; anwras (Ilocos Norte) ; anids or anids 
de moras (Pampanga) ; ants de moro (Ilocos Sur, Abra) ; geron, giron 
(Iloilo) ; ilib (Pampanga) ; mora or moras (Pampanga, Tarlac, Rizal, Ma- 
nila, Laguna, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, Antique, Cebu, Occidental Ne- 
gros) ; rimodas (Capiz) ; riTnora (Zambales) ; rimoras (Camarines) ; tres 
moras (Capiz). 

VETIVER OIL 

► Oil obtained from the roots of this grass is known as vetiver 
and also as cuscus. The oil is obtained by steam-distilling the 
roots v^hich are first macerated in v^ater. It has been employed 
as an aromatic, carminative and diaphoretic. It is used con- 
siderably as a constituent of high grade perfumes and also as 
a perfume fixative, which makes the odors less volatile and more 
lasting. 

According to Askinson,* the roots are used in India for making 
fragrant mats, while shavings are employed for filling sachet 
bags. The odor of the roots is somewhat similar to that of 
sandal wood. Fans made of the roots are sold in oriental-curio 
shops in the United States under the name of "sandal-root" fans. 

► Piesse f states that in Calcutta, vetiver (vitivert or kus-kus) is 
made into awnings and sunshades. During the hot season the 
shades are sprinkled with water, the evaporation of which cools 
the apartment, while the atmosphere is perfumed with the fra- 
grant odor. 

In the Philippines, the roots are woven into fans which are 
►prized on account of their agreeable odor. The stalks are also 
used for making hats, while the leaves are sometimes employed 
for thatching. 

According to Watt, J the roots of Andropogon zizanioides — 

* * * When distilled with water yield a fragrant Oil (known in 
European trade as Vetiver, which is used as a perfume and for flavouring 
sherbet. It commands a high price in Europe, being employed in many 
favourite scents. It is the most viscid of essential oils, and hence its sparing 
volatility .is taken advantage of in fixing other perfumes. The oil is 
hardly, if ever, exported from India, European supplies being either locally 

* Askinson, G. W., Perfumes and cosmetics (1915), pages 54, 173, 225. 
t Piesse, C. H., Art of perfumery (1891), page 233. 

» $ Watt, George, The commercial products of India (1908), page 1106. 



176 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

made from the Indian roots or derived from Reunion. According to Piesse,f 
the yield is about 10 oz. per cwt.; other observers have found it to vary 
from 0.2 to 3.5 per cent. * * * 

The odor of vetiver. Parry * says, does not resemble that of 
orris root, but has a similar effect in perfumery. Vetiver es- 
sence is obtained by treating three pounds of the dried roots 
with one gallon of alcohol. It is used in making various high- 
grade bouquet perfumes. Parry states that from the standpoint 
of practical perfumery vetiver oil is said to blend excellently 
with the odors of orris root and cassie flowers. Askinson says 
that vetiver essence consists of 2 ounces of vetiver oil dissolved 
in one gallon of alcohol, and vetiver sachet powder of 2 pounds 
of vetiver roots, 15 grains of musk, and 20 grains of civet. « 

According to Bacon, f the distillation of the greater part of 
vetiver oil is carried on in Europe, Neither the roots nor the 
oil appear to be exported from the Philippines. The roots are 
sold in the large public markets of the Philippines in small lots 
at from 15 to 25 centavos per kilo. They are usually laid away 
v;ith clothing to impart a pleasant odor. Bacon believed that 
the cultivation and distillation of this grass offered commercial 
possibilities in the Philippines. 

Parry % states that Schimmel investigated this oil and obtained 
the following results: 

Specific gravity 1.019 to 1.027 

Optical rotation +25° to +26° « 

Ester number (as per cent KOH) 7 to 8 

Solubility in 80 per cent alcohol 1 in H to 2 

Singh § distilled seven samples of vetiver roots and found that 
the yield of oil obtained varied from 0.45 to 1.14 per cent The 
resin contained in the oil was eliminated by redistillation and 
the refined oil then gave a negative optical rotation (-30.65°).< 

An extensive investigation of vetiver oil and a review of the 
literature on this subject has been made by Semmler, Risse, and 
Schroter.ll The oil used by these investigators was prepared by 
Schimmel. They obtained from vetiver oil various substances 

* Parry, E. J., Chemistry of essential oils and artificial perfumes (1908), 
page 186. 

t Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils, III. Philippine 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 4 (1909), page 118. 

J Parry, E. J., Chemistry of essential oils and artificial perfumes (1908), 
page 186. 

§ Singh, Puran, American Perfumer, Volume 10 (1915-1916), page 133. 

II Semmler, F. W., Risse, F., and Schroter, F., Berichte der Deutschen 
Chemischen Gesellschaft. Volume 45, II (1912) , page 153. ' 



ESSENTIAL OILS 



177 




FIGURE 59. ANDROPOGON ZIZANIOIDES (VETIVER OR MORAS), THE SOURCE OF 

VETIVER OIL. 
168S37 12 



178 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

such as the vetivenes, vetivenol, vetivenic acid, vetivenyl ace, 
tate, and similar compounds. 

Bacon * reports the results of his investigation on vetiver as 
follows : 

(1) Thirty kilos of fresh vetiver roots were distilled for two working 
days (seven hours each) with steam, the condensed water being continually 
poured back over the roots, and the oil collected in a little petroleum ether 
to effect easier separation from the water, as the vetiver oil has almost 
the same specific gravity as water. The petroleum ether was distilled in 
vacuo and there were thus separated 327 grams of a light yellow oil (1.09 
per cent) which had a very strong, pleasant odor and the following prop- 
erties: Specific gravity,^ =0.9935; A^^-=+32.1; N ^ = 1.5212 sapon- 
ification number ^47.4 , 

The roots used in the above experiment were obtained from small gardens 
about Manila and were crushed between the rollers of a sugar mill before 
being distilled. Such a crushing of the roots seems to improve the yield 
of oil. 

(2) Thirty-one kilos of fresh roots, uncrushed, on distillation as above 
gave 140 grams oil (0.3 per cent). 

(3) Six kilos of dried roots, uncrushed, gave by extraction with ligroin 
14 grams of an oil which had only a very slight vetiver odor. 

(4) Eighty-one kilos of dry moras which had been stored in jute sacks 
for about three months after harvesting, were distilled with steam with 
continuous cohobation and yielded 370 grams of oil (0.456 per cent) of an 
intense odor and brown color. This oil had the following properties: 
Specific gravity, ^0^- =0.9964; N^0° = 1.5163; A ^^° = -{-32.1; saponification 

number = 60.0. * 

It is to be noted that this oil with a higher saponification number has a 
much stronger odor than that obtained in experiment 1 given above (sapon- 
ification number =47.4 

(5) A plot of well-fertilized ground containing 150 square meters was 
planted with vetiver grass. In six months time the plants had flowered and 
reached maturity ; they were then removed, giving 270 kilos of roots, or 
at the rate of over 18,000 kilos per crop per hectare. However, it was * 
found when these roots were transferred to the laboratory, that they had 
lost most of their odor, and they gave so small a yield of oil as not to 
make it worth while to distill them. Some of these plants had been pulled 
up from time to time and tested for their oil content; they seem to contain 
the oil up to the time of flowering. 

These preliminary experiments seemed to indicate that the proper time 
for harvesting is about three months after planting, at which time, of 
course, the yield of roots is not nearly so heavy. The oil in the roots is a 
protection, and is withdrawn when the plant flowers and seeds. We have 
planted all of our vetiver by simply burying pieces of divided root tufts 
in the ground. We have as yet made no experiments on the propagation 
of the grass from the seed. It was found that the roots can very con- 

* Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils. III. Philippine ^ 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 4 (1909), page 119. 



ESSENTIAL OILS 179 

I 

veniently be harvested by washing away the soil with a stream of water, 
catching detached rootlets with a coarse screen. One hundred plants of 
the above lot, treated in this manner, gave 60 kilos of roots (wet), and 
100 plants at Paraiiaque in a sandy beach soil, gave 23 kilos of roots. 
The latter were presumably three to four months old and contained a 
large percentage of oil. 

Andropogon zizanioides is a coarse, erect, tufted, perennial 
grass 1 to 2 meters in height. It has fragrant, fibrous roots. 
The leaves, arranged in two rows, are about 1 meter long, 1 cen- 
timeter or less in width, and folded. The panicles are terminal, 
erect or greenish, and about 20 centimeters long. 

This grass abounds in all parts of the Archipelago. It is iden- 
*tical with the khus-khus or khas-khas of India. It grows abun- 
dantly in Burma and is also found in Reunion, Mauritius, and 
the West Indies. 

Family ARACEAE 

Genus ACORUS 
ACORUS CALAMUS L. LUBIGAN or SWEET FLAG. 

Local names: Acoro (Spanish); bueng (Pampango) ; lubigdn (Tagalog, 
Bikol, Bisaya) ; ddlau (Ilocos Sur, Abra, Union); ddrau, dengau (Bontoc). 

CALAMUS OIL 

The rhizome of sweet flag has an agreeable, aromatic odor, 
and when powdered is used for sachet and toilet powders. The 
* rhizome yields calamus oil when distilled. This oil is used for the 
preparation of aromatic cordials and liqueurs, for flavoring beer, 
and also in making perfumes. Throughout the Malayan region 
and the Philippines it is highly prized for medicinal purposes. 

Askinson * gives the essence of calamus as consisting of If 
ounces of calamus oil dissolved in 5 quarts of alcohol. Although 
*this essence has a pleasant odor, it is not a very valuable per- 
fume and is usually employed as a basis for cheap perfumery 
preparations. 

Parry f states that Schimmel obtained 0.8 per cent of oil from 
the dried rhizome, while the fresh rhizome yielded about 2.0 per 
cent. According to Parry, a thorough chemical investigation 
of this oil has not been made. However, it is supposed to con- 
tain pinene and a sesquiterpene. Schimmel found that the spe- 
cific gravity varied from 0.960 to 0.970 and the optical rotation 
from -f 10'' to + 35°. Oil from the Japan calamus root, how- 
ever, gave a specific gravity of 1.000. Pure samples of calamus 

» * Askinson, G. W., Perfumes and cosmetics, (1915). 

t Parry, E. J., The chemistry of essential oils and artificial perfumes. 
(1908). 



180 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

oil are soluble in 90 per cent alcohol and should yield no dis- 
tillate below 170°. 

Acorus calamus has stout, branched, aromatic rhizomes. The 
leaves are flat, smooth, 25 to 60 centimeters long, and 1 to 1.5 
centimeters wide. The spathe is green, much elongated, and 
similar in shape to the leaves. The spadix is 3 to 5 centimeters 
long, 1 centimeter or less in diameter, and bears many flowers. 

This species occurs throughout the Philippines as a cultivated 
plant. In the Mountain Province, Luzon, at and above an al- 
titude of 1,400 meters, it is sometimes found growing wild in 
swamps in great abundance. However, this plant has appar- 
ently been introduced into the Philippines. < 

Family ZINGIBERACEAE 

Genus CURCUMA 
CURCUMA LONGA L. DiLAU OR TURMERIC. 

Local names: Aiige (Pampanga) ; azafrdn (Spanish in Zamboanga) ; 
bardk (Cuyo Islands) ; ddlau (Iloko in Cagayan) ; dildu (Bataan, Rizal, 
Manila, Laguna, Batangas, Tayabas) ; dilau-puld (Laguna) ; duldu (Leyte, 
Capiz, Iloilo, Cuyo Islands) ; kalaudg (Camarines, Albay, Zambales) ; ku- 
Idlau (Pangasinan) ; kunig (Ilocos Sur, Cagayan) ; luyang-dildu (Ba- 
tangas). 

DILAU OIL 

The rhizomes of Curcuma longa are used extensively in the 
Philippines as a condiment and for food coloration and also as , 
an ingredient of curry. 

Bacon * found that when 123 kilos of roots were distilled, 290 

grams of a brown-colored oil were obtained. The constants of 

30 
this oil were as follows: Specific gravity, — = 0.930; refractive 

oO 

30 30 

index N -^ = 1.5030; optical rotation, A jy=8°.6; ester number,* 

81 ; miscible with 75 per cent alcohol. 

Turmeric (curcumin) is the yellow coloring matter (dye) 
obtained from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa. 

It is not exported from the Philippines at the present time. 
The value of the importations into the United States in 1907 
was 26,252 dollars, the greater part being from Burma. 

Curcuma longa resembles Curcuma zedoaria, but its flowering 
shoot is borne within the tuft of leaves and not directly from 
the rootstock as is that of Curcuma zedoaria. It has 5 or 6 thin, 
smooth, pale-green, pointed leaves, which are about 45 centi- 

* Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils, IV. Philippine 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 5 (1910), page 262. 



ESSENTIAL OILS Igl 

meters long and 12 to 18 centimeters wide. The flowering spike 
is 12 to 20 centimeters long and borne on a stalk of about the 
same length. The bracts are 2 to 3 centimeters long, spreading, 
recurved, pale green, the terminal one sometimes rosy. 

This species is distributed from northern Luzon to Mindanao, 
and is locally abundant in the settled areas. Curcuma longa is 
commonly cultivated and the wild plants are probably descend- 
ants of planted ones. 

CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Bosc. Barak or Zedoary. 

Local names: Alimpuying (Negros Oriental); bardk (Bataan, Min- 
doro) ; ganda (Zambales) ; koniko (Bontoc) ; luyaluydhan, tamo (Rizal) ; 
lampoydng (Guimaras Island); tamahilan (Camarines) . 

ZEDOARY OIL 

The stout, fleshy, aromatic rootstocks when dry are called 
zedoary. The roots yield a volatile oil when distilled with water, 
and contain a pungent, soft resin and bitter extractive. They 
have an odor somewhat like that of ginger. 

Watt * says that the rhizomes constitute one of the most im- 
portant articles of native perfumery in India. The root is also 
used medicinally. According to the nineteenth edition of the 
United States Dispensatory, zedoary is a warm, stimulating 
aromatic, serviceable in flatulent colic and debility of the di- 
gestive organs, but is now little used, as it produces no eff'ect 
which cannot be as well or better obtained from ginger. 

Bacon f found that 160 kilograms of rhizomes when chopped 
and steam-distilled gave 400 grams (0.25 per cent) of a light 
yellow oil which had the following properties : — Specific gravity, 

OAO Of) 

^5=0.993; refractive index, Nj^- =1-5070; optical rotation, 

30' 
A-:fY =1°.10; saponification number, 2; soluble in two or more 

volumes of 80 per cent alcohol. This oil was distilled in vacuo 
(7 millimeters) and the distillate separated into fractions. 
Fraction 4, (140° to 160°) and fraction 5, (160° to 166°), gave 
131 grams of oil which solidified to a beautiful white, crystalline 
compound, which Bacon thought was probably a sesquiterpene 
alcohol. 

Curcuma zedoaria is an erect herb with a stout, fleshy, aromatic 
rootstock. The leaves usually grow in pairs and are green, often 
with a purplish blotch in the center. They are from 25 to 70 



* Watt, The commercial products of India, 1908. 

t Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils, IV. Philippine 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 5 (1910), page 261. 



1§2 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

centimeters long and 8 to 15 centimeters wide. The flower stalks 
spring directly from the rootstocks and not from the leaf tuft, 
and often appear before the leaves. The spike is cylindrical, 
5 to 8 centimeters in diameter and 10 to 15 centimeters long, 
and is composed of numerous somewhat spreading, rounded 
bracts, the lower of which are green and more or less tipped 
with pink, the upper ones usually longer and purple, each con- 
taining several flowers, of which the lower open first. The 
corolla tube is about 2 centimeters long, yellowish-white, some- 
times tinged with purple. 

This species is probably a native of India, but is now widely 
distributed in the warmer parts of the eastern hemisphere. It 
is common and widely distributed in thickets and open places 
in the settled parts of the Philippines. 

Genus ZINGIBER 
ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Bosc. GiNGER. 

Local names: Agcit (Pangasinan) ; gengibre (Spanish); Iciya (Pam- 
panga) ; luyd (Abra, Ilocos Norte and Sur, Capiz, Iloilo) ; la-yd or lay-d 
(Zambales, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon) ; liiya (Tarlac, Bulacan, Bataan, 
Rizal, Laguna, Manila, Batangas, Tayabas, Mindoro, Marinduque) ; luy-a 
(Albay, Iloilo, Occidental Negros, Misamis, Cuyo Islands). 

GINGER 

Zingiber officinale is cultivated in all parts of the Philippines, 
but never on a large scale, and is not exported. The dried root 
of this plant has a pungent, aromatic odor and is commonly 
known as ginger. Ginger is used as a condiment and as a fla- 
voring agent. It is also employed medicinally as an aromatic 
stimulant and carminative, and is given in cases of dyspepsia 
and flatulent colic. It is utilized in the manufacture of ginger 
beer and ginger ale and also as a spice and a confection. 

Ginger consists essentially of a volatile oil, a resin, and starch. 
Its pungency is due to the resin it contains, while the aroma is 
given by the volatile oil. An analysis of Calcutta ginger quoted 
by Leach * gave the following results : 

Water 9.60 

Ash 7.02 

Volatile oil 2.27 

Fixed oil and resin 4.58 

Starch 49.34 

Crude fibre 7.45 

Albuminoids 6.30 

Undetermined 13.44 

Nitrogen 1.01 

* Leach, A. E., Food inspection and analysis (1914), page 446. 



ESSENTIAL OILS 183 

Oil of ginger is obtained by distilling the ginger root. It has 
a greenish-yellow color and is very aromatic though not pungent. 
It is slightly soluble in alcohol. 

Ginger oil, and also the alcoholic extract of ginger roots, are 
used for flavoring beverages. 

Bacon * distilled two lots of Philippine ginger roots and 
examined the distillates. He describes his results as follows: 

* * * I made two experiments on the distillation of native ginger 
roots. In the first one, 50 kilos of the chopped roots gave only 25 grams 
of oil. For the second, 132 kilos were purchased in the market at Mal- 
abon at 22 centavos, (11 cents United States currency) per kilo and 
immediately distilled. There were obtained 95 grams (0.072 per cent) of 
a light yellow oil, having the odor of ginger and also a strong smell, much 
like that of orange-peel oil. 

This oil had the following properties : 

Specific gravity ^^^=0.8850. 

Refractive index, N^^-= 1.4830. 

30° . 

Optical rotation, A ^-=— 5.°9.t 

Saponification number, 14. 

It is easily and completely soluble in two or more volumes of 90 per 
cent alcohol. 

It is seen that oil from the Philippine ginger differs quite markedly in 
its properties from that distilled from the Jamaica or African varieties 
and resembles some Japanese oils examined by Schimmel and Company in 
its ready solubility in 90 per cent alcohol, and its negative optical rotation. 

Family MAGNOLIACEAE 

Genus MICHELIA 

.MICHELIA CHAMPACA L. (Fig. 60). ChampAka. 

Local names: Champdkang-puld (Manila); sampdka (Rizal). 

CHAMPAKA OIL 

Oil obtained from the flowers of this species is used as a 
perfume. 

Roure-Bertrand Fils t state in their bulletin that the perfume 
of Philippine champaka flowers is stronger and sweeter than 
that of the flowers obtained from Singapore, Penang or Co- 
lombo. 



* Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils, IV. Philippine 

Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 5 (1910), page 259. 

, tin the original, the minus sign is omitted, apparently through error, 

since Bacon says, in the body of the paper, that the oil has a negative 

rotation. ^^^^ „^ 

J Bulletin of Roure-Bertrand Fils, Volume 1 (1909), page 26. 



;[84 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

In experimenting with champaka flowers it is necessary to 
work rapidly because a few hours after picking, the flowers 
turn brown and begin to lose their fragrance. The oil obtained 
from these flowers has been investigated by Bacon * and by 
Brooks.f According to Bacon: 

The yield appears to be over 0.2 per cent. The crude oil on standing 
separated a large amount of a crystalline solid. This was filtered and an 
additional quantity of it was again separated by the addition of ether, in 
which the solid is quite insoluble. The remaining oil, after standing for 
some weeks in the laboratory, continued to solidify until it gradually 
became semisolid. The second solid which separated was amorphous and 
appeared to be resinous in nature. If this semisolid extract is treated ^ 
with 70 per cent alcohol, about half of it separates in the form of the 
amorphous, brown, odorless body. This was filtered and the filtrate con- 
centrated at 40° 171 vacuo until a brown oil separated, which had a very 
fine odor of champaca, and was readily soluble in 70 per cent alcohol or 

30' 
stronger. Our oil had the following constants: Specific gravity, ^, 

0.9543; refractive index, N^, 1.4550; saponification number, 160. Another 

oil had specific gravity, ^^[, 1.020; refractive index, N ^, 1.4830; 

saponification number, 180. The second oil had the finer odor. The oils 
were too dark to permit of determinations of the optical activity. * * * 

Fifty grams of champaka oil (soluble in 70 per cent alcohol, ester 
number 180) were saponified with 10 grams potassium hydrate in 100 cubic 
centimeters of 95 per cent alcohol. After heating for one hour with a 
reflux condenser, two volumes of water were added; 4.5 grams of an 
amorphous solid separated. This was filtered and the filtrate was separated 
into neutral, acid, and phenol fractions. By saponification the champaka 
oil loses all of its characteristic odor, which therefore must be due to 
esters. 

The phenol fraction (1.5 grams) proved to consist principally of iso- 
eugenol, as benzoyl iso-eugenol melting at 103° could be obtained from it. 
The total acid fraction weighed 15 grams. None of this acid boils below 
140° at 40 millimeters; hence there is no methyl ethyl acetic acid. No acids 
have as yet been identified. 

The neutral portion weighed 23 grams and had an odor somewhat similar 
to that of oil of bay. 

Bacon found that the solid which crystallizes from the freshly 
prepared oil, after repeated crystallization from benzene and 
petroleum ether, forms odorless, white crystals. 

Brooks examined two samples of champaka oil and obtained 
the constants recorded in Table 29. 

* Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils, III, Philippine 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 4 (1909), page 131; IV, Volume 5 
(1910), page 262. 

t Brooks, B. T., New Philippine essential oils. Philippine Journal of 
Science, Section A, Volume 6 (1911), page 333. 



ESSENTIAL OILS 



185 




FIGURE 60. MICHELIA CHAMPACA (CHAMPaKA), THE SOURCE OF CHAMPACA OIL. 



186 



PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 
Table 29. — Constants of champaka oil. 



Constants. 



Specimen No. 



II. 



30° 
Specific gravity ^(^b - 

3 
Refractive index N" 



Ester number. 

Ester number after acetylating . 



0.904 

1. 4640 
124 



0. 9107 



146 
199 



According to Brooks, when champaka oil is heated, a large 
part of it is polymerized to resin. The oil obtained by steam- 
distilling consists largely of cineol. The solid which crystallizes 
from the freshly prepared oil is probably a ketone compound. In 
addition to iso-eugenol, the essential oil of yellow champaka 
flowers contains benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, cin- 
eol, and p-cresol methyl ether. 

Michelia champaca is a small tree with spear-shaped leaves, 
12 to 20 centimeters long and 2.5 to 6 centimeters wide. The 
flowers are yellowish brown, very fragrant, and from 4 to 5 
centimeters in length. They are highly prized by the Filipinos 
and by them are made into necklaces. 



MICHELIA LONGIFLORA Blume. 



Champakang-puti. 



CHAMPAKANG-PUTI OIL 



Champaka oil obtained from this species has been exported 
to Europe from Java. According to Brooks * the purified oil 
is dark green in color. It possesses an intensely sweet, almost 
nauseating odor, which is very different from that of the oil 
obtained from the flowers of Michelia champaca. 

The constants of the oil are as follows: Specific gravity, 

on 

0.897; ester number, 180.0; refractive index, N^ =1.4470. 

The above constants point to a rather large per cent of the 
esters of fatty acids. According to Brooks the oil contains lin- 
alool, methyl eugenol, methyl-ethyl-acetic acid, and acetic acid. 
The odor of the oil is chiefly that of the methyl or ethyl ester 
of methyl-ethyl-acetic acid. 

Michelia lotigi flora is a small tree with white flowers. It is 
a native of Java and is occasionally cultivated in Manila. 



* Brooks, B. T., New Philippine essential oils. Philippine Journal of 
Science, Volume 6 (1911), page 333. 



ESSENTIAL OILS 187 

Family ANNONACEAE 

Genus CANANGIUM 

CANANGIUM ODORATUM (Lam.) Baill. (Figs. 61-62). Ilang-ILANG. 
Local names: Alftngigan (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Abra, Lepanto) ; ala- 
ngilan (Mindoro) ; anangilan (Surigao) ; anangiran (Manobo) ; burak 
(Leyte) ; ilang-ilang (Ilocos Sur, Zambales, Tayabas, Bataan, Rizal, Ma- 
nila, Laguna, Mindoro, Balabac Island, Masbate, Guimaras Island, Ticao 
Island, Davao, Surigao); tangid, tangit (Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon). 

ILANG-ILANG OIL 

Ilang-ilang * oil is obtained by steam-distilling the flowers of 
^anangiuTYi odoratum, in perfume literature sometimes called 
"the flower of flowers." The best grade of distilled oil is almost 
colorless, having only a slight yellow tint. The inferior grades 
are greenish yellow. A very high-grade oil is also obtained by 
extracting the flowers with petroleum ether. This oil usually 
appears very dark. 

Ilang-ilang oil is extensively used in the perfumery industry. 
It is employed in the preparation of high grade perfumes such 
as lily of the valley, corylopsis, etc, 

Askinson f gives the formulas of various perfumes containing 
ilang-ilang as one of the principal constituents. The formula 
of one of these perfumes is as follows : 

* Heliotrope 

Oil of ylang-ylang drops.... 20 

Geraniol do 10 

Benzaldehyde do 2 

Heliotropin grains.... 35 

Vanillin do 6 

Coumarin do 4 

' Tincture of musk (xylene 100 7f)---- do 40 

Cologne spirit (95%) enough to make quart.... 1 

The manufacture of ilang-ilang oil is the most important, in 
fact, it is practically the only perfume industry in the Philip- 
pines. This oil is peculiarly a product of the Philippines. Ac- 
cording to Parry % oil distilled in other tropical countries from 
the same tree is not ranked in the same class as the Philippine 
product as regards quality. The value and amount of ilang- 
ilang exported from the Philippine Islands for the last four 
years are given in Table 30. 

* Frequently spelled ylang-ylang. 
» t Askinson, G. W., Perfumes and cosmetics, (1915). 

t Parry, E. J., Chemistry of essential oils and artificial perfumes, 
(1908). 



188 



PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 



Table 30. — A7nount and value of ilang-ilang oil expo7'ted fi'om the Philip- 
pine Islands. 



Year. 


Amount. 


Value. 


1915 ..... 


Kilo- 
grams. 

1,277 
975 

2,286 
476 


Pesos. 
43,514 
75, 032 
93, 951 
65.595 


1916 


1917 

1918 





MANUFACTURE OF OIL 

The flowers are usually picked at night and are collected in« 
the morning by the people who deliver them at the distilleries. 
In Manila the best flowers are usually obtained in May and June. 
We have little information as to the yield of flowers produced 
by a single tree, but it is apparently large. 

Bacon,* who made an extensive investigation of ilang-ilang 
oil, did not believe that the distillation offered any special diffi- 
culties, but that it was necessary to collect only the proper frac- 
tion. He found that when the flowers are distilled commercially 
the procedure is frequently not carried out in the proper manner 
and that consequently a low grade of oil is often obtained. 

* * * The important points where many err, and this is especially 
true of the provincial distillers, is in the wrong choice of fractions, in 
burning the flowers and in obtaining too much resin in the oil. The oil 
must be distilled slowly, with clean steam, the flowers being so placed in 
the stills as to avoid their being cut into channels by the steam. The 
quantity of the oil taken is only a fraction of the total amount in the 
flowers. Disregard of this factor is one of the most grievous errors of 
the provincial distillers, for, on the contrary, they are usually too anxious 
to obtain a large yield of oil, and therefore they will often distill 1 kilo* 
from 150 to 200 kilos of flowers. The quantity of the latter to be taken 
to produce 1 kilo of oil naturally varies with their quality, but in general 
the amount should be 300 to 500 kilos, probably averaging about 400. 
After the first quality oil has been distilled, then a varying quantity of 
the second grade, up to a volume equal to that of the first, may be obtained 
from the same lot of flowers; after this operation the still and condensers 
must be thoroughly cleaned and steamed out to prevent contamination of 

* Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils, II. Ylang-ylang 
oil. Philippine Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 3 (1908), page 65. 

Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils. III. Oil of Ylang- 
ylang. Philippine Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 4 (1909), page 
127. 

Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils, IV. Oil of Ylang- ^ 
ylang. Philippine Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 5 (1910), page 
265. 



ESSENTIAL OILS 



189 




FIGURE 61. CANANGIUM ODORATUM (ILANG-fLANG), THE SOURCE OF ILANG-fLANG 

OIL. Xi. 



190 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

the next distillation of first quality oil with the remains of the second 
quality adhering to the apparatus. The distiller usually judges of the 
time to change the receptacle 'from that used for first quality to that 
employed for the second, by taking note of the odor of the distillate. The 
oil is received in some type of Florence flask, usually two or more of these 
are connected in series and the condensed water is used in future dis- 
tillations. The whole apparatus is best lined with block tin, although some 
distillers have found nickel to be more satisfactory. The oil, after separat- 
ing from the water, is clarified and as it is sensitive to light and air, it 
should be placed into dark colored bottles as soon as possible; these should 
be filled to the neck, well stoppered and then paraffined to keep out all air. 
In the ideal apparatus the receivers should be so constructed that very 
little light and air has access to the oil. * * * 

Bacon emphasized the fact that only mature, yellow flowers* 
should be used, and he believed that the greatest advance in the 
industry would take place when the distillers owned their own 
groves and could select their flowers. This is shown very 
strikingly in the following quotation: 

Fifty-four and five-tenths kilos (120 pounds) of extra fine flowers, 
one-half of which were perfectly yellow and ripe, were distilled with steam 
in the usual manner and the following fractions were obtained: 

Number 1: 55 cubic centimeters; specific gravity, -*; =0.960; 
A ^=-19.8"; N"^^ =1.4865; ester number, 178. 

Number 2: 33 cubic centimeters; specific gravity, —V = 0.959; 

A-jy = -26.5; N^^ =1.4914; ester number, 160. 

30" 
Number. 3: 90 cubic centimeters; specific gravity, -r^- = 0.954; 



OQO OAO 

A^=-34.6°; N''^- = 1.4956; ester number, 154. 



4^ 



30° 
Number 4: 80 cubic centimeters; specific gravity, -—=0.942; 

30 CO .' tvt30 « 

A~j) =-53.4 ; N^ = 1.5020; ester number, 113. 

Tubes numbers 1, 2 and 3 united gave the following constants: Specific 
gravity, |^° = 0.958; A^=-27.0; N -^- = 1.4910; ester number, 169. 

The total oil obtained was 258 cubic centimeters, which is 264 grams, 
corresponding to a yield of 0.45 per cent. 

This yield was nearly twice the normal amount and the quality of the 
oil was very high, as was shown not only by analytical figures given 
above, but also was confirmed by the opinions of Manila experts to whom 
it was submitted. 

I believe these experiments indicate that 200 kilos of ripe, yellow flowers 
will give 1 kilo of a better quality of oil than will 400 kilos of the class 
of poor, mixed flowers used at the present time. It is a well-known fact 
of plant physiology that the odoriferous substance is pre.sent in the flowers « 
in greatest abundance and in finest quality at the time when it is mature 



ESSENTIAL OILS 



191 




FIGURE 62. CANANGIUM ODORATUM ( ILANG-fLANG) . THE SOURCE OF ILANG-fLANG 

OIL. 



192 



PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 



and ready for pollination. No doubt, in the course of time much can be« 
done toward improving the yield and quality of ilang-ilang oil by intel- 
ligent plant selection. Such work requires much patience and at present 
there are absolutely no data available save a general opinion that the 
ilang-ilang trees of the wild mountain regions are not as fragrant as the 
cultivated ones of the lowlands. 

CLASSIFICATION OF ILANG-ILANG OIL 

It is a well-known fact that ilang-ilang oil, like many other 
natural perfumes, does not owe its fragrance to any one sub- 
stance, but is a mixture of a number of odoriferous compounds. 
It is generally bought and sold on the judgment of the dealers, 
the determining factor being the odor. Obviously the judgment 
of various buyers may differ, and consequently it is desirable, < 
if possible, to value the oil according to analytical tests, so that 
the purchase and sale may be placed upon an exact analytical 
basis. 

Bacon obtained a number of samples of ilang-ilang oil, mostly 
from one distillery, the process of distillation being watched and 
the samples collected by himself. He determined a few of the 
simple constants of these oils, such as specific gravity (pykno- 
meter) , optical rotation, refractive index, and ester number ; the 
latter by the usual method, using 1 gram of oil. A few of these 
results are recorded in Table 31. 



Table 31. 


— Tabulation o) 


the constants 


of ilang-ilang oils. 


Grade. 


Sample. 


Sp. KT. 

30° 
4°. 


a 30° 
D. 


n3q^ 
D. 


Ester 
number. 


Origin and remarks. 




5 


0.939 


—34.2 


1. 4880 


131 


B. 'sdistillateof August22, 1907. 
First quality oil rectified in va- 




10 


0.922 


-26.0 


1.4794 


117 














cuo. B. 'sdistillate90percent 














yield. 


First 


21 


0.949 


—36.1 


1.4940 


138 


Distilled in vacuo with steam 
from selected flowers. 




22 


0.827 


—42.2 


L4912 


126 


B.'s distillate of Febuary 1, 
1908, from very good flowers. 




.23 


0.958 


—27. 


1. 4910 


169 


0. 4 per cent yield from selec- 














ted flowers with very careful 














distillation. A very fine oil. 




12 


0.917 


—66.7 


1. 5032 


70 


Distillation of second-quality oil 














from flowers from which the 














first quality had been pre- 














viously distilled. Yield, 0.7 


Second .. 












per cent. 




13 


0.919 


—61.4 


1. 4977 


86 


Second-quality oil. 




14 


0.918 


—66.4 


1. 4986 


83 


Second-quality oil. 




15 


0.903 


-81.3 


1.4981 


59 


Second-quality oil. 




16 


0.928 


-30.2 


1. 4927 


64 


Provincial oil. 





ESSENTIAL OILS 



193 



* The determination of these constants enables us to classify 
oils into first and second grades. The limits for these grades 
are given in Table 32. 

Table 32. — Classification of ilang-ilang oil according to Bacon. 



Constants. 



First grade. 



Ester number 100 and above 

Index of refraction 1.4900 and below. 

Specific rotation —45° and below -- 



Second grade. 



80 to 100. 
Above 1. 4900. 
Above-45°. 



In a later publication Bacon showed that first-grade oils have 
•a higher acetyl number than second-grade oils. 

The classification of ilang-ilang oil now in use is a modifica- 
tion of Bacon's standard of classification, which was proposed 
by Dr. Jaehrling of the firm of Santos and Jaehrling of Manila, 
and advocated by Gibbs.* The constants of this classification 
are given in Table 33. This classification divides Bacon's first 
class into three divisions, namely: extra, 1-a, and 1-b. This 
division is apparently necessary on account of the large pro- 
portion of high-grade oil which is now produced. 

Table 33. — Classification of ilang-ilang oil according to Jaehrling. 



1 

1 Grade. 
1 


Ester number. 


Index of Specific Solubility in 
refraction. rotation. alcohol of — 


Extra - 


1 
Above 145 . '' Below 1. 4900 


Per cent. 
Above— 35- _-.| 80. 






la 


120 to 145 


1.4900 to 1.4950 


-35to-48 


90. 

1 




lb 


100 to 120 


1.4950tol.4990 — 48 to-60 


1 
90-96. 


> 

2 . 


Below 100 


Above 1.4990 


Below— 60 


96 





The solubility of ilang-ilang in alcohol is also given as an 
extra test. According to Gibbs, this is very useful as a con- 
firmatory test, since it indicates the amount of sesquiterpenes 
present in the oil. This test consists in determining the lowest 
strength of aqueous alcohol which can be mixed with the oil 
without cloudiness, in the proportion of 2 of oil to 1 of alcohol. 

Bacon suggests an easy method of judging approximately the 
quality of an oil: 



* Gibbs, H. D., Proposed modification of ilang-ilang oil standards. 
Mppine Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 10 (1915), page 99. 

168837 13 



Phil- 



194 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

* * * To prepare a 1 per cent solution of the oil in alcohol and* 
compare the odor with a similar one of an oil of known quality, as judg- 
ment is much more certain as to the perfuming power when dilute solutions 
instead of the pure oils are used. One cubic centimeter of each solution 
can then be poured on separated pieces of bibulous paper, the odor being 
compared at the end of twelve, twenty-four, or even a longer number of 
hours; this test gives some idea in regard to the permanence of the odor. 

DISTILLATION OF OIL IN VACUO 

Bacon found that the distillation of the oil in vacuo provides 
a good method of ascertaining the quality of an oil and the num- 
ber of flowers used in preparing it. He also showed that the 
rectification of oils in vacuo is not very successful. These points 
are shown in the following quotation : * 

* * * the rectification of oils in vacuo is not an entire success, as 
the distillates, although apparently of the same composition as the oil 
from which they are distilled, seem to lack in perfuming power; this is 
especially true of the lasting qualities of the odor. These results suggest 
that the highest boiling parts of the ilang-ilang oil and even the resins, 
are very probably important constituents of the whole, possibly they help 
to fix the more volatile, odoriferous portions. I have always been im- 
pressed by the peculiarly lasting fragrance of the resinous residues of the 
distillation of ilang-ilang oils fractioned in vactio. 

The distillation of ilang-ilang oils in vacuo has shown that over 50 per 
cent of the first quality oil will pass over below 100*" at 10 millimeters 
pressure, and when I have tested poorer oils in this respect I have found 
the amount of substance volatile below 100° at 10 millimeters which 
passed over to be proportional to the quantity of flowers used in preparing * 
the oil. Thus one oil distilled from flowers at the yield of 1 kilo for 206 
kilos of flowers showed 27 per cent of volatile constituents under the con- 
ditions named, whereas another prepared in the proportion of 1 kilo to 
150 kilos of flowers gave 19 per cent. 

It follows from this that the distillation test is also of value both in 
determining the quality of an oil and the proportion of flowers used in 
preparing it. The only manner in which poor provincial oils may be * 
improved is by redistillation with steam, and this procedure results in 
large losses. Fractioning with steam in vacuo also seems quite promising, 
• although the process is very slow. Oils thus obtained are quite colorless, 
and by taking suitable fractions a very fair oil may thus be prepared from 
a product which before treatment was almost unsalable. 

EXTRACTION OF PERFUME OIL WITH SOLVENTS 

Bacon * also studied the problem of extracting the oil from 
ilang-ilang flowers with solvents : 

* * * Many of the constituents of essential oils are very delicate 
substances and distillation with steam decomposes these compounds to a 

* Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils, III. Philippine , 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 4 (1909), page 129. 



> 



ESSENTIAL OILS 195 

considerable extent, so that a steam-distilled oil but rarely has exactly the 
same odor as the flowers from which it was obtained. Extraction with 
cold solvents and the removal of the solvent in vacuo, the temperature 
never being allowed to rise above 40°, gives oils which have exactly the 
same aroma as the flowers. This process has the further commercial 
advantage that such extracted flower oils can not be imitated synthetically, 
as the change in aroma is undoubtedly due to traces of very easily de- 
composable compounds which it will be difficult, if not impossible, ever to 
isolate and identify. The extracted oil need fear no competition with syn- 
thetic oils. Alcohol, ether, chloroform and petroleum ether have been used 
as solvents for ilang-ilang oil, and the last named has given the best 
results. Naturally, a very high grade of petroleum ether, which leaves 
no bad smelling residue when distilled up to 40° in a vacuum of 40 milli- 
meters, must be used as the solvent for the essential oil. Operating in 
this manner, we have obtained oil yields of from 0.7 to 1.0 per cent. The 
oil is of a very dark color and contains a considerable amount of resin in 
solution. When in bulk, the odor is not particularly pleasant or very 
strong, but when the extract is greatly diluted the pleasant aroma of the 
flowers becomes very apparent. The physical constants of one sample of 

this oil were as follows: Specific gravity, ^=0.940; N "J^ =1.4920; ester 

number 135; acetyl number 208. 

The oil is too dark to permit readings of its optical rotation to be prac- 
ticable. These constants are seen to agree quite well with those of a very 
high grade distilled oil, and as was stated above, the different odor is 
probably due to traces of delicate compounds present in the extracted oil, 
which are destroyed during the process of distillation. It is rather curious 
to note that when this extracted oil is shaken out with water, a considerable 
t amount of resin separates, carrying the distinctive flower aroma, and the 
separated oil then has an odor resembling that of methyl-7>kresol. 

These extracted oils should sell for a considerably higher price than 
the best distilled oils, which fact, taken in consideration with the increased 
yield and the impossibility of competition from synthetic oils, offers a very 
attractive new industry to the Philippines. 

ADULTERANTS 

Regarding the use of adulterants of ilang-ilang oil, Bacon says 
that he does not believe the practice is very general in the Phil- 
ippines. The common adulterants are said to be turpentine, 
coconut or other fixed oils, and kerosene. Bacon suggests va- 
rious tests for these substances, if their presence is suspected.* 

The use of any adulteration is more emphatically the height of com- 
mercial folly for ilang-ilang than it is for any other essential oil, for only 
the product of the highest quality brings a remunerative price. A 10 per 
cent increase in quantity by means of adulteration may cut the price in 
two, or may result in an oil which can not be sold at any price. * * * 



* Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils, II. Ylang-ylang 
*oil. Philippine Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 3 (1908), page 76. 



196 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

f 

COMPOSITION OF ILANG-ILANG OIL 

Parry states that investigations of ilang-ilang oil have shown 
that it contains esters of benzoic and acetic acids, also linalool, 
cadinene, pinene, P-cresol methyl ether, geraniol, and iso-eugenol. 
Parry is of the opinion that in addition to these substances, 
ilang-ilang contains other compounds, as a synthetic oil closely 
resembling the natural oil has been prepared commercially. 
Probably a considerable amount of research has been done on 
ilang-ilang, but for trade reasons the investigators do not care 
to publish their results. 

Bacon * performed a number of experiments to determine the 
composition of ilang-ilang oil and concluded that it contained* 
formic, acetic, valerianic (?), benzoic, and salicylic acids, all 
as esters ; methyl and benzyl alcohols ; pinene and other terpenes, 
linalool, geraniol, safrol, cadinene and other sesquiterpenes; 
eugenol, iso-eugenol, p-cresol, probably as methyl ethers; and 
cresol. He then prepared a synthetic oil in order to test the 
accuracy of his studies on the composition of ilang-ilang oil. 
His synthetic ilang-ilang contained the following substances 
(proportions not stated): methyl benzoate; benzyl acetate and 
formate; benzyl methyl ether (trace) ; benzyl valerianate 
(trace) ; methyl salicylate; benzyl benzoate; cadinene; safrol; 
iso-eugenol-methyl ether; eugenol; cresol; methyl anthranilate 
(trace) ; p-cresol-methyl ether; p-cresol acetate. This mixture' 
gave an odor very similar to good ilang-ilang oil. From the 
results of his own work and that of others Bacon concluded : 

* * * ylang-ylang oil has a composite odor, derived from that of 
many constituents. While it is possible to make a very good artificial 
ylang-ylang oil, I do not believe that distillers of the best quality of ylang- 
ylang oil have much to fear from this competition, as the odor of a first-* 
class oil seems to have more permanence than that of the artificial product. 
This is a result, I believe, of the presence of sesquiterpene alcohols and 
fragrant resins in the former. 

GROWTH OF CANANGIUM ODORATUM 

This species has been grown in plantations at Los Banos. 
Only one lot of seeds was planted, and this showed a very low 
percentage of germination, 3.2 per cent. It is uncertain as to 
whether or not this low percentage was due to poor seed. The 
trees have done well in plantations. The average rates of growth 
of considerable numbers are given in Table 34. 

* Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils, II. Ylang-ylang, 
oil. Philippine Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 3 (1908), page 86. 



ESSENTIAL OILS 



197 




FIGURE 63. CINNAMOMUM INERS, A SOURCE OF CINNAMON. Xi. 



198 



PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 



Table 34. — Growth of Canangium odoratiim (Ilang-ilang) in plantations 
at Los Banos, Laguna. 



Age. 


Diam- 
eter. 


Height. 


Years. 
2 


cm. 


m. 
1.33 
2.06 
3.80 
5.34 
8.35 


3 




4.. 




5 


7 
12 


7 





Canangium odoratiim is a medium-sized to rather large tree, 
with somewhat drooping branches. The leaves are alternate, 
12 to 20 centimeters long, pointed at the apex, and usually- 
rounded at the base. The flowers are very fragrant, greenish, 
soon turning yellowish, pendulous. The pedicels are 1 to 2.5 
centimeters long and elongated in fruit. The sepals are hairy. 
The petals are somewhat hairy, narrow, pointed, 4 to 6 centi- 
meters long and 0.5 to 1 centimeter wide. 

This species is a native of the Philippines and is found 
throughout the Archipelago both cultivated and wild. It occurs 
at elevations of at least 700 meters. It is very commonly cul- 
tivated in Manila and flowers throughout the year. 

Family LAURACEAE 

Genus CINNAMOMUM 

CINNAMOMUM INERS Reinw. (Fig. 63). CINNAMON. 

Local names: Marobo (Samar). 

CINNAMON 

The bark of this species is sold commercially as cinnamon. 

Cinnamomum iners is a small to large tree. The leaves are 
opposite, smooth, leathery, from 8 to 16 centimeters long, pointed 
at the apex and rounded or pointed at the base. The flowers 
are yellowish, about 4 millimeters long, and borne on compound 
inflorescences. The fruits are about a centimeter long. 

This species has been reported from Mindoro, Palawan, 
Samar, Mindanao, and Tawi-tawi. 

CINNAMOMUM MERCADOI Vid. (Fig. 64). Kalingag. 

Local names: Canela (Span, in Pangasinan) ; kalingag (Rizal, Bataan, 
Lanao, Laguna, Samar, Tayabas, Camarines, Polillo, Pampanga) ; kalingad 
(Pampanga) ; kanila (Lepanto, Albay) ; kanilao, kaniiigai (Camarines) ; 
kandaroma (Benguet) ; kasiu (Calayan Island) ; kuliuan or uliuan (Ca- 
gayan) ; samiling (Bataan). 



ESSENTIAL OILS 



199 




FIGURE 64. CINNAMOMUM MERCADOI (KALfNfeAG), THE SOURCE OF KALfNGAG OIL. 

Xg. 



200 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

^ « 

KALINGAG OIL 

The bark of Cinnamomum mercadoi is used locally as medicine 
and would probably, on account of its strong sassafras odor and 
taste, make a good ingredient for root beers. 

Bacon * made a chemical investigation of this bark and re- 
ported his results as follows : 

* * * I obtained 25 kilos of bark from the Lamao region, Bataan 
Province. This bark was ground and distilled with steam, giving 260 
grams (1.04 per cent) of a light yellow oil. The oil had an odor like 



sassafras and the following properties; 
N^^ = 1.5270; A-g =-1-4°. * * * 



30° 
Specific gravity =1.0461; 



The oil was distilled at 10 millimeters and gave the following fractions: 



No. 


Boiling 
point. 


Quantity. 


N 30^ 
D. 


1 


Degrees. 
119-124 
124-130 
Residue 


Grams. 

77° 
9.2 
11.5 


1. B333 
1. 5320 
1.5278 


2 


3.. .. 







Fraction No. 1 redistilled at ordinary pressure had a boiling point 235' 

30° , ^^o-. - TVT 30^ 
4 
30° 



to 238° at 760 millimeters; specific gravity, 7 =1.0631; N "^^ =1.5335; 



A "jX- = -1-0.9. By oxidation with chromic acid this fraction gives pipero- , 

nylic acid melting at 227°. Piperonal was obtained by heating with 
alcoholic potash and then oxidizing with potassium permanganate. 

These results leave no doubt but that the oil from Cinnamomum mer- 
cadoi Vid. is almost entirely safrol, and it is remarkable in this respect, 
as most oils from Cinnamomuyn species contain only small amounts of safrol 

and large percentages of cinnamic aldehyde. * * * 

< 

Cinnamomum mercadoi is a small to medium-sized tree up to 
65 centimeters in diameter. It is usually straight but not very 
tall. The leaves are opposite, smooth, leathery, pointed at both 
ends, distinctly three-nerved, and from 8 to 20 centimeters in 
length. The fruits are about 2 centimeters long and surrounded 
to the middle by the persistent calyx. 

This species is very widely distributed and well known, but 
rather scarce. Quantities of bark sufficient for commercial 
utilization could be collected, if it were of sufficient value. 

CINNAMOMUM MINDANAENSE Elm. (Fig. 65). MINDANAO CINNAMON. 
Local names: Kalingag (Surigao) ; canela (Span, in Zamboanga). 

* Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils. III. Philippine 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 4 (1909), page 114. 



ESSENTIAL OILS 



201 




FIGURE 65. CINNAMOMUM MINDANAENSE (MINDANAO CINNAMON), A SOURCE OF 

CINNAMON. Xi. 



202 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

« 
CINNAMON 

The bark of this species is collected and sold as cinnamon of 
commerce. 

Eacon * examined the bark, and reported as follows : 

* * * The tree is very close to Cinnamomum zeylaniciun Nees and 
the bark in appearance, taste, and odor is just like the cinnamon of com- 
merce. Fifty kilos of the ground bark were distilled with steam, yielding 
200 grams of oil of a yellow color and of a strong cinnamon odor and 
taste. 

This probably does not represent by any means all of the oil which it 
is possible to obtain by commercial distillation from this bark, the propor- 
tion being less because of the small amount of material at my disposal. 

30° 
The oil had the following properties: Refractive index, N^ 1.5300; optical • 

rotation, A 7°. 9; specific gravity, ^0.960. 

Ten grams of the oil gave 9.2 grams of the dry sodium bisulphite com- 
pound of cinnamic aldehyde, corresponding to an aldehyde content of ap- 
proximately 60 per cent. 

This oil does not agree very closely in its physical properties with the 
Ceylon cinnamon oil from C. zeylaniciim. 

Cinnamomum mindanaense is usually a small tree, about 10 
meters in height. The leaves are opposite or sub-opposite, smooth, 
leathery, pointed at both ends, and from 7 to 15 centimeters in 
length. The flowers are greenish, about 5 millimeters long, and 
borne on compound inflorescences. The fruits when mature are , 
shining steel-blue, 1.25 centimeters long, and 7.5 millimeters in 
width. 

This species is known only from Mindanao, where it is fairly 
abundant in some places. 

Family LEGUMINOSAE 

« 

Genus ACACIA 
ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. (Fig. 66). Cassie FLOWER or Aroma. 

CASSIE-FLOWER OIL 

A gum which resembles gum arable exudes from the bark of 
this tree. The flowers are known commercially as cassie flowers. 
Acacia fai'nesiaua is grown extensively in France for the fra- 
grant perfume obtained from the flowers. The odor of this 
perfume resembles that of violets, but is more intense. Piesse f 
states that cassie perfume is one of those fine odors which are 

* Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils, IV. Philippine 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 5 (1910), page 257. 

t Piesse, C. H., Art of perfumery, (1891). 



t 



ESSENTIAL OILS 



203 




FIGURE 66. ACACIA FARNESIANA (AROMA), THE SOURCE OF CASSIE FLOWERS. Xi. 



204 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 



f 



used in preparing the best handkerchief bouquets and hair 
pomades. When diluted with other odors it imparts to the 
whole a true flowery fragrance. 

The essential oil obtained from the flowers of Acacia farnesia 
is greenish yellow and viscid. This oil itself is never sold com- 
mercially, but is mixed with other substances and sold as per- 
fumes, fixed oils, pomades, or extract of cassie. 

Cassie perfume is prepared as a pomade by macerating the 
flower heads and placing the crushed material in purified melted 
fat where it is allowed to remain several hours. As many flowers 
are used as the fluid grease will cover. The spent flowers are 
next removed and replaced by fresh ones. This operation is , 
continued until the grease has acquired a sufl[icient richness of 
perfume. Eight or ten treatments are usually necessary. The 
melted fat is then strained and cooled. This preparation, which 
is simply a solution of the true essential oil of cassie flowers 
in a neutral fat, is the commercial cassie pomade. More modern 
methods of preparing pomades such as that of cassie are de- 
scribed by Askinson.* 

Extract of cassie is prepared by treating six pounds of cassie 
pomade, which is cut into small pieces, with one gallon of al- 
cohol. Askinson * uses four pounds of cassie pomade to one 
gallon of alcohol. The alcoholic solution of the pomade is placed 
in securely stoppered bottles and allowed to remain three or four , 
weeks at summer heat. The perfume which the fat contains 
is dissolved out by the alcohol. The mixture is then filtered. 
The residue of fat still contains some perfume and serves as 
an excellent material for the manufacture of hair dressing. The 
extract of cassie prepared in this manner has a fine olive-green 
color and the rich flowery odor of the cassie blossoms. It should c 
be preserved in tightly stoppered bottles in a cool, dark place. 
This is necessary, as under the influence of light, heat, and air, 
the delightful odors of perfumes are gradually destroyed. 

Cassie perfume may also be prepared by distilling the flowers 
and dissolving the essential oil thus obtained in alcohol. This 
method of preparation gives, however, an inferior product, which 
does not have the true, natural scent of the flowers. Usually, 
when the active odorous principle of the flower exists in un- 
usually minute quantities as in such flowers as cassie, violet, 
and jasmine, a better grade of perfume is obtained by making 
a pomade, rather than by distilling. 

* Askinson, G. W., Perfumes and cosmetics, (1915). 



ESSENTIAL OILS 



205 



■ti'*>^S! 





JWtan del 

FIGURE 67. KINGIODENDRON ALTERNIFOLIUM (BATeTE), THE SOURCE OF BATeTE 

INCENSE. 



206 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

Acacia farnesiana is a large, spiny shrub or small tree from* 
3 to 4 meters in height. The leaves are 5 to 8 centimeters long, 
and bipinnate, usually with ten to twelve leaflets. The leaflets 
are 4 to 7 millimeters in length. The flowers are yellow and 
fragrant and are borne in dense, globose heads, which are about 
1 centimeter in diameter. The pods are 5 to 7 centimeters long 
and 1 to 1.5 centimeters wide, straight or curved. 

This species is probably a native of tropical America, but 
is widely distributed in waste places in the Philippines and is 
one of the commonest plants in the early stages of the invasion 
of grasslands by second-growth forests. 

Genus KINGIODENDRON « 

KINGIODENDRON ALTERN I FOLI U M Merr. (Figs. 67, 68). Batete. 
Local names: Batete (Tayabas, Sorsogon, Ticao Island, Masbate) ; dang- 
gdi (Camarines, Tayabas, Albay, Sorsogon, Masbate); dukd (Negros, Ta- 
blas Island, Leyte) ; kalikit (Agusan) ; kumagasdka, palind (Agusan, 
Davao) ; longbayau or manogbayo (Agusan) ; bagbalogo, magabalogo (Sa- 
mar) ; palomaria (Zamboanga) ; saktldiTgin (Albay, Sorsogon) ; sarok 

(Davao) ; paind, parind or payind (Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon) ; tud-an 

(Misamis). 

BATETE INCENSE 

Batete has a dark-green sap which thickens to a gummy con- 
sistency on exposure. Nothing is known of its chemical prop- 
erties, but mention is made in Spanish literature of its use for 
incense. 

Kingiodendron alternifolium is a tree reaching a height of 
30 to 35 meters and a diameter of 80 to 100 centimeters. The 
bark is 7 to 10 millimeters thick, gray to gray brown with a 
yellowish tinge, and is shed in large scroll-shaped patches. The 
inner bark is red. The leaves are alternate, and simply com- 
pound with from 3 to 7, usually alternate, leaflets, which are 
smooth, leathery, pointed at the apex, rounded or pointed at 
the base, and from 8 to 18 centimeters long. The flowers are 
small and borne on compound inflorescences. The fruits are 
rounded or oval, frequently somewhat flattened, 4 to 5 centi- 
meters long, and 3 to 4 centimeters wide. 

This species is distributed from central Luzon to Mindanao. 

Family RUTACEAE 

Genus CITRUS 
CITRUS HYSTRIX DC. (Fig. 69). Kabuyau. 

Local names: Dungurvngut (Cagayan^ ; kabuyau (Pampanga, Tarlac, 
Bulacan, Zambales, Bataan, Manila, Batangas, Laguna, Zamboanga) ; * 



ESSENTIAL OILS 



207 




FIGURE 6S. TRUNK OF KINGIODENDRON ALTERNIFOLIUM (BATeTE), THE SOURCE OF 

BATeTE INCENSE. 



208 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

kabugau (Camarines, Mindoro); kamnlau (Iloko) ; kamuntai (Bisaya) ; 
kamuyau (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Abra) ; kapitan (Iloko) ; kolobdt (Taga- 
log) ; limon-karabdu (Zamboanga) ; tnakatbd (Zambales) ; peres (Panga- 
sinan) . 

KABUYAU OIL 

Schimmel * states that the oil of this species has an odor 
resembling that of bergamot. According to Brooks,t the leaves 
of the Philippine plant when steam-distilled yield an oil resem- 
bling in odor the oil distilled from the leaves of the pomelo. 
Citrus decumana Murr. Although the oil is very fragrant, the 
yield (0.08 per cent) is extremely small. The constants of the 

oil are as follows: Specific gravity, |^ =0.9150; N^^ =1.4650 ;« 

80 
A jy = —10.50° ; saponification number, 50.2. 

Citrus hystrix is a small tree armed with small spines. The 
leaves are variable, but average 10 to 12 centimeters in length. 
The flowers are white and about a centimeter wide. The fruits 
are about 10 centimeters in diameter. 

This species is common and widely distributed in forests 
throughout the Philippines. 

CITRUS MICRANTHA var. MICROCARPA Wester. (Fig. 70).Samuyau. 

SAMUYAU OIL f. 

The rind of this species yields a clear, almost colorless oil 
which is very fragrant. It should be useful as a perfumery 
oil. 

The crushed fruits or samuyau are used by women in Cebu 
for cleansing the hair, or are mixed with Gogo (pounded stems 
of Entada phaseoloides) which serves as a shampoo. The * 
crushed fruit is also added to coconut oil, to give it fragrance 
when applied to the hair. 

The oil obtained by steam-distilling the crushed peels had an 
orange-like odor and the following constants : 

Specific gravity 28.5°= 0.8670 

Refractive index 25°= 1.4718- 

Optical rotation A ^=-1-150 

(100 mm. tube) 

* Schimmel, Semi-annual report (1901). 

t Brooks, B. T., New Philippine essential oils. Philippine Journal of 
Science, Section A, Volume 6 (1911), page 349. * 



ESSENTIAL OILS 



209 




FIGURE 69. CITRUS HYSTRIX (KABuYAU), THE SOURCE OF KABuYAU OIL. X*. 

168837 14 



210 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

f 

The yield of oil, calculated from the weight of the whole fruit, 
was 0.56 per cent and from the peel alone 1.29 per cent. The 
oil has been employed as an ingredient of shampoos. 

The tree is said to bear fruits within five years after planting. 
The fruits are produced during the entire year, but most abun- 
dantly during the rainy season. In places where they are grown 
they sell for 5 centavos per hundred during the wet and 20 
centavos per hundred during the dry season. Samuyau is said 
to be very delicate, and to need careful attention, and in Cebu, 
during the dry season, even daily watering. 

Citrus micrantha var. microcarpa is a shrubby tree about 4.5 
meters tall. It has slender branches and small, weak spines,, 
The leaves are thin, with a distinct fragrance, 5.5 to 8 centi- 
meters long, and 2 to 2.5 centimeters broad. The flowers are 
white with a trace of purple on the outside, and 5 to 9 millimeters 
in diameter. The fruit is 1.5 to 2 centimeters in diameter, 
roundish in outline, and greenish lemon-yellow. 

This species is abundant in Cebu and other islands of the 
Bisaya group. 

CITRUS Sp. GURONG-GURO. 

Local names: Bungkalot (Laguna) ; kaburau (Iloko) ; kolison, muntai 
(Tayabas) ; gurong-guro (Pangasinan, Zambales) ; suangi (Manila) ; tihu- 
lid (Bulacan). 

GURONG-GURO 

This species has a very fragrant rind which is mixed with 
coconut oil for use on the hair. The whole fruit is also mixed 
with gogo (Entada phaseoloides) bark as a shampoo. Cloves 
are sometimes put into the rind and then the fruits squeezed 
in the hands to give them a pleasant odor. The fruit of this 
species is about 5 centimeters in diameter, with a very rough? 
irregularly ridged, green rind, and with a nipple-like protuber- 
ance at the base. The rind is rather thin, and the fruit is not 
edible. 

Genus CLAUSENA 
CLAUSENA ANISUM-OLENS (Blanco) Merr. (Fig. 71). KayumanIs. 
Local names: Dayap-daydpan (Laguna); kayumanis (Rizal). 
CLAUSENA ANISUM-OLENS OIL 

The leaves have an odor much like that of anise. Bacon * says 

that alcoholic extracts also have a very strong anise-like odor. 

According to him, it is possible that this plant could be used 
__« 

* Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils, III. Philippine 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 4 (1909), page 130. 



ESSENTIAL OILS 



211 




FIGURE 70. CITRUS MICRANTHA VAR. MICROCARPA (SAMOYAU), THE SOURCE OF 

SAMuYAU OIL. Xi. 



212 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

locally in preparing anisado, which is a favorite alcoholic bev-' 
erage among the Filipinos. 

Brooks * examined the oil obtained from the leaves of this 
species and states that : 

A quantity of leaves, weighing approximately 16 kilos, were distilled 
with steam over a period of about five hours and 185 grams of colorless 
oil were obtained. This oil resembled the fresh leaves in odor and pos- 
sessed the following constants. Specific gravity, ^^ =0.963; N ^=1.5235; 

saponification number 3.6; the oil is inactive. * * * 

The oil has a faint odor of anise or anethol, which, together with the 
constants, identifies it almost with certainty as methyl chavicol. For 
further proof, a small portion was oxidized with potassium permanganate 
to homoanisic acid, melting point, 84° to 86°. * * * 

Therefore, it is evident that the oil from Clausenn contains methyl 
chavicol to the extent of 90 to 95 per cent. * * * 

The occurrence of methyl chavicol, especially in such large proportions, 
in one of the Rutaceae is quite novel. * * * 

Owing to the ease with which methyl chavicol is converted into anethol, 
by treatment with alkalies, it is possible that this operation would be 
successful commercially. Considerable quantities of anise oil are annually 
imported into the Philippine Islands for the manufacture of anisado. How- 
ever it is doubtful whether or not Clausena could successfully be cultivated, 
as it is a typical forest species. 

Clausena anisum-olens is a small tree, 3 to 6 meters high. 
The leaves are alternate, 20 to 30 centimeters long, compound, 
with 7 to 11 leaflets which are inequilateral, pointed at the tip, • 
5 to 11 centimeters in length, and with toothed margins. The 
leaves are aromatic when crushed. The flowers are greenish 
white, fragrant, about 8 millimeters in diameter, and are borne 
in panicles which are 15 to 20 centimeters long. 

This species is a native of the Philippines, is widely distrib- 
uted, and is abundant in some places. It is occasionally cul-' 
tivated. 

Genus TODDALIA 

TODDALIA ASIATICA (L.) Kurz. 

Local names: Atdngen, bugkdu, bukkdn, siibit (Benguet) ; daudg (Rizal). 

TODDALIA ASIATICA OIL 

According to D. Hooper,t the oil obtained by distilling the 
leaves of this species has a pleasant odor resembling verbena 
or basilicum. Gildemeister and Hoft'man J state that the oil 

* Brooks, B. T., New Philippine essential oils. Philippine Journal of 
Science, Section A, Volume 6 (1911), page 344. 
t Schimmel, Semi-annual report (1893). 
t Die Aetherischen Ole, Berlin (1899), page 601. 



ESSENTIAL OILS 



218 




FIGURE 71. CLAUSENA ANISUM-OLENS (KAYUMANfS). Xl 



214 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

f 

is valuable as a low-grade perfume oil. Brooks * says that it 
is commercially profitable to distill the oil. He reports his in- 
vestigation as follows : 

The leaves yielded 0.08 per cent of oil by steam distillation. On freez- 
ing, the oil deposited 18 per cent of a white crystalline, very volatile com- 
pound, having an odor closely resembling that of camphor. After recrys- 
tallizing the substance twice from petroleum ether, the melting point was 
96.5° to 97°. The compound" is very unstable. A pure specimen of it 
changed in 24 hours to a pasty mixture of oil and unchanged crystals. 
It was not further investigated. The oil had an odor suggesting a mixture 

30° 
of camphor and lemon grass. Its constants were as follows: N-ft' 

30^ 
1.4620; specific gravity, g^o 0.9059. # 

The oil is largely linalool, since the fraction boiling' from 195° to 200° 
yields citral on oxidation with chromic acid mixture. 

Tocldalia asiatica is a spiny, woody vine. The leaves are al- 
ternate and trifoliate. The leaflets are pointed at both ends 
and 5 to 8 centimeters in length. The flowers are small, 
greenish, and borne on rather large compound inflorescences. 
The fruits are small and are borne in fairly large clusters. 
They are considerably less than a centimeter in diameter and 
when dry are distinctly three- to five-angled. 

This species is common in second-growth forests and is also 
found in virgin forests. 

Family VERBENACEAE 

Genus LAN TAN A 
LANTANA CAMARA L. Lantana. 

Local names: Albahaca de caballo (Spanish in Zamboanga) ; bahug- 
bahug (Negros) ; boho-boho (Iloilo) ; coronitas (Manila) ; lantana (Tarlac, 
Cavite, Batangas, Laguna) ; tinta-tintdhan (Manila). 

LANTANA OIL 

This species has very aromatic leaves from which Bacon f 
obtained an oil having an odor somewhat like that of sage. 
Concerning his experiments he writes : 

Seventy kilos of the leaves distilled with steam gave 60 cubic centi- 
meters of a light yellow oil; 100 kilos gave 245 cubic centimeters, and 
110 kilos gave 78 cubic centimeters of oil. 

These results show that the yield of oil evidently varies considerably, 
the differences depending upon the season, age of the leaves, etc. The oil 

OAO qno OAO 

has a specific gravity of ^=0.9132; N^ =1.4913; A^= + 11.5. Its 

* Brooks, B. T., New Philippine essential oils. Philippine Journal of « 
Science, Section A, Volume 6 (1911), page 333. 

t Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils. III. Philippine 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 4 (1909), page 127. 



ESSENTIAL OILS - 215 

> 

odor reminds me somewhat of sage. Fifty grams distilled in vacuo gave 
two fractions as follows: 

(1) Twenty-two grams boiling between 125° to 130° at 12 millimeters 
N?^° = 1.4892. 

(2) Twenty-four grams boiling between 130° and 140° at 11 milli- 
meters; N^ =1.4970. 

If on further investigation this oil proves to be of any value, 
the cultivation of the plant is certainly a commercial possibility. 

Lantana camara is an erect or half -climbing, hairy, aromatic 
shrub, usually 1 to 2 meters in height when erect, and higher 
when climbing. The leaves are rounded at the base and pointed 
' at the tip, with toothed margins, and are from 5 to 10 centi- 
meters in length. The flowers are pink, red, or yellow, and 
are borne in many-flowered heads. The fruit is a small, almost 
black berry. 

This species grows abundantly and luxuriantly and is common 
in the waste places of the Philippines. It is a native of tropical 
America. 

Family LABIATAE 

Genus OCIMUM 
OCIMUM BASILICUM L. Balanoi or SWEET BASIL. 

Local names: Alhahdca (Spanish); balandi (Rizal) ; balanoi (Batanes 
Islands, Tayabas) ; bauing, solcisi (Balabac Island) ; biddi (Union) ; kalu-ui 
' (Basilan) ; kamdngi (Culion Island). 

SWEET BASIL OIL 

Watt * says that : 

"The whole plant has an aromatic odor, which is improved by drying. 
Its taste is aromatic and somewhat cooling and saline." (Pharmacog. Ind.) 
The seeds, which are much used medicinally in some parts of India, are 
' small, black, oblong (one-sixteenth inch long), slightly arched on one 
side and flattened on the other, blunt pointed. They have no odor, but 
an oily, slightly pungent taste. When placed in water they become 
coated with a semi-transparent mucilage. Steeped in water, they form 
a mucilaginous jelly (U. C. Diitt, Murray, Dymock, &c.) . Their prop- 
erties are said to be demulcent, stimulant, diuretic, and diaphoretic. * * * 

The plant has a strong aromatic flavor like that of cloves and is often 
used for culinary purposes as a seasoning. The seeds are sometimes 
steeped in water and eaten. They are said to be cooling and very nourish- 
ing. In Kanawar they are sometimes eaten mixed in ordinary bread 
{Stetvart, Pb. PI.). They are largely employed, especially by the Moham- 
medans of Eastern Bengal, infused in water, to form a refreshing and 
cooling drink. 

When the herb Ocimum basilicum is distilled it yields sweet 

* Watt, G., Dictionary of the economic products of India. Volume 5 
(1891), page 441. 



216 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 



« 



basil oil, which is a yellowish-green, volatile oil lighter than 
water. Parry * states that it has an excellent fragrance and is 
used in making mignonette extract. The yield of oil obtained 
from the herb is about 1.5 per cent or less. 

Ocimum basilicum is an erect, branched under-shrub 0.5 to 
1.5 meters in height. It is smooth, or somewhat hairy, and very 
aromatic. The leaves are entire or slightly toothed and 1.5 to 
3 centimeters long. The flowers are borne in racemes which 
are 8 to 15 centimeters long. The corolla is pink or purplish 
and 9 to 10 millimeters long. 

This species is apparently common and widely distributed 
from the Batanes Islands to southern Mindanao. .. 

Genus OCIMUM 
OCIMUM SANCTUM L. SuLASi or HOLY BASIL. 

Local names: Albahdcaf (Spanish); balanoi (Tagalog) ; biddi (Iloko) ; 
kolokogo (Tayabas) ; kalui (Basilan) ; kamdngi (Bisaya) ; katigau (Mi- 
samis) ; kamangkdii (Camarines) ; lokoloko (Polillo) ; magau (Cotabato) ; 
suldsi (Tagalog). 

HOLY BASIL OIL 

This species, known as holy basil or tulsi, is the sacred plant 
of India. 

Watt t states that : 

The Tulsi is the most sacred plant in the Hindu religion; it is conse- 
quently found in or near almost every Hindu house throughout India.* 
Hindu poets say that it protects from misfortune and sanctifies and guides 
to heaven all who cultivate it. * * * Under favourable circumstances, 
it grows to a considerable size, and furnishes a woody stem large enough 
to make beads for the rosaries used by Hindus on which they count the 
number of recitations of their deity's name. 

According to Bacon § 13.86 kilos of leaves which were forty-^ 

eight hours old at the time of distillation gave 83.3 grams of a 

green-colored oil (0.6 per cent). This oil had a sweet, anise- 

30 
like odor and the following properties : — Refractive index, N^r 

30^ 30 

= 1.5070; optical rotation, A^=0; specific gravity, — 

=0.952; saponification number, 2.8. 

* Parry, E. J., Chemistry of essential oils and artificial perfumes, 
page 308. 

t This name belongs properly to the preceding species. 

t Watt, G., Dictionary of the economic products of India, Volume 5 
(1891), page 444. , 

§ Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils, IV. Philippine 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 5 (1910), page 261. 



ESSENTIAL OILS 217 

The oil consists to a large extent of methyl homoanisic acid, 
melting at 85°, being obtained by oxidizing the fraction boiling 
from 85° to 95° at 9 millimeters pressure. Bacon also states 
that 65 small plants gave 2.5 kilos of fresh leaves, which when 
steamed-distilled gave 32 grams of oil. 

Ocimimi sanctum is an erect, herbaceous or half -woody, coarse 
plant, 1 meter or less in height. The stems and younger parts 
of the plant are covered with spreading hairs. The leaves are 
opposite, pointed at the tip, somewhat rounded or pointed at 
the base, 2 to 4 centimeters long, and with toothed margins. 
The flowers are about 7 millimeters long and pink. 

This species is cultivated for its fragrant leaves and is occa- 
sionally spontaneous in waste places. It is found throughout 
the Philippines, but is certainly not a native of the Archipelago. 

Genus POGOSTEMON 

POGOSTEMON CABLIN Benth. (Fig. 72). Patchouli or Kabli'n. 

Local names: Kabiling (Pampanga) ; kablin (Ilocos Sur, Abra, Bontok, 
Tagalog provinces) ; kabling (Ilocos Sur, Bulacan, Laguna, Mindoro) ; 
kadlin (Batangas) ; kadling (Rizal) ; kadlom or kadlum (Tagalog prov- 
inces, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, Leyte) ; sdrok (Igorot). 

PATCHOULI OIL 

The species Pogostemon cablin is highly valued for the per- 
fume oil, patchouli, obtained from its leaves. The dried leaves, 
which are very fragrant, are sometimes used for scenting ward- 
robes. It is said that they prevent the clothes from being at- 
tacked by moths. Patchouli is a common perfume in India and 
China, and goods, such as shawls, exported from these countries 
owe their peculiar odor to the patchouli plant. 

The dried leaves of Pogostemon cablin, when distilled, yield 
about 3.5 per cent of patchouli oil, which is used in making per- 
fumes and scented soaps. Formerly patchouli oil was considered 
a very high-grade perfume base, but it is now more frequently 
used in lower grades. The pure oil has a strong musky odor 
and is mixed with other essential oils in making perfumes. 

According to Mann,* the etheral oil is present in small quan- 
tities in the fresh leaves, and only develops through a kind of 
fermentation of the cut leaves packed into bundles. This ex- 
plains why the yield from the dried leaves is about 3.5 to 4 
per cent, while from fresh leaves it is much less. Mann says 
that the pronounced patchouli scent is only popular in a very 
few cases, like the export business to tropical countries. How- 
ever, the oil serves many purposes in perfumery, giving a fine 

* Mann, H., The American Perfumer, Volume 8 (1913-1914), page 1-44. 



218 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

shade to various combinations without being obtrusive. It is 
therefore valuable as a so-called fixing agent. It is used v^ith 
otto of roses, jasmine, cassia, fine musk and labdanum. For 
cheaper qualities of patchouli perfumes, benzylacetate is a very- 
good material; it aids in dissipating the severe patchouli odor 
and for this reason is frequently utilized. With very cheap ar- 
ticles, oil of cloves and also artificial musk are employed. The 
scent is used with good results to combat the frequently very 
obtrusive odor of perspiration, completely suppressing it. Mann 
says: 

Besides patchouli perfumes, patchouli toilet water also is used. This is 
especially popular with the harem ladies of Turkish and Arabic Pashas, , 
who pay enormous prices for fine qualities. These toilet waters are 
worked with infusion of jasmine, but there are also some to be found in 
trade containing menthol, which gives an odd shade, and is very well 
liked. Otto of roses also is added and so is some fine kananga oil, all in 
combination with the finest patchouli oil, thus preventing its domination. 

Askinson * gives the following formulas for patchouli per- 
fumes : 

Essence of patchouli 

Oil of patchouly ounces.... IJ 

Oil of rose do i 

Alcohol quarts.... 5 

Extract of patchouli 

Extract of orange flower quart.... 1 , 

Oil of patchouly ounces... H 

Oil of rose grains.... 150 

Alcohol gallon.... 1 

Patchouli powder 

Patchouly herb pounds... 2 

Oil of patchouly grains.... 30 

Musk do 15 • 

The constants of patchouli oil obtained from different coun- 
tries vary considerably. This is shown by the figures in Table 
35 which are quoted by Parry.f 

Table 35. — Constants of patchouli oil. 



Constants. 



Specific gravity -.. 

Optical rotation 

Initial boiling point 

Distils between 250°— 270^ 



Java plants. 



0. 922 at 25° . 
—16^ 10'.... 

130° 

50 per cent.. 



Singapore 
plants. 



0. 949 at 25° 

—58° 24' 

230° 

60 per cent. 



* Askinson, G. W., Perfumes and cosmetics, (1915). 

t Parry, E. J., The chemistry of essential oils and artificial perfumes, 
(1908). 



ESSENTIAL OILS 



219 




> FIGURE 72. POGOSTEMON CABLIN (PATCHOULI OR KABLfN), THE SOURCE OF 

PATCHOULI OIL. X|. 



220 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

ff 

According to Gildermeister-Kremers " patchouli alcohol, 
Ci^HogO, is an odorless constituent of patchouli oil, from which 
it separates in crystals that melt at 56"^. 

Pogostemon cablin is an erect, branched, hairy herb .5 to 1 
meter in height. It is aromatic when crushed. The leaves are 
opposite, pointed at the tip, and usually obtusely pointed at the 
broad base. The margins are coarsely and doubly toothed. 
The flowers are borne in terminal and axillary spikes which are 
2 to 8 centimeters long and 1 to 2.5 centimeters in diameter. 
The corolla is pink-purple and 8 millimeters long. 

This species is found throughout the Philippines in cultiva- 
tion and is also wild. There seems to be a great deal of un- • 
certainty as to the original home of Pogostemon cablin. It is 
cultivated in many parts of the Indo-Malayan region, but ap- 
parently rarely, if ever, flowers in India, Ceylon, Singapore, 
and Java. It appears to produce flowers freely only in the 
Philippines. 

Family COMPOSITAE 

Genus BLUMEA 

BLUMEA BALSAM I FERA DC. (Fig. 73). Sambong. 

Local names: Aliblwn (Negros) ; alimon (Negros) ; bukadkdd (Samar) ; 
kalibon (Cuyo Islands) ; kalibura (Palawan) ; lakadbulan (Camarines) ; 
sambon (Zamboanga) ; sambong (Tarlac, Bataan, Bulacan, Manila, Pa- 
lawan, Laguna, Mindoro, Basilan, Tayabas, Zambales, Batangas, Rizal, 
Balabac Island, Misamis) ; sobosob (IIocos Norte and Sur, Abra, Panga- 
sinan) ; takamain (Davao). 

Sambong Oil 

The leaves of Blumea balsamifera are used locally for poisoning 
fishes, and medicinally for a number of purposes. The roots are , 
also utilized medicinally. 

Bacon f distilled the leaves of this plant and obtained a yield 
of from 0.1 to 0.4 per cent of a yellow oil with a camphor-like 
odor. This oil was almost pure 1-borneol. As this substance 
readily oxidizes to camphor, the oil, according to Bacon, should 
be valued at from one-half to three-fourths of the price of the 
camphor. Bacon estimates that the leaves could be cut four 
times a year. According to some experiments made in Indo- 
China, t it is possible to obtain 50,000 kilos of leaves per hectare 



* Gildermeister, E. and Kremers, E., The volatile oils, (1913). 

t Bacon, R. F., Philippine terpenes and essential oils. III. Philippine 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 4 (1909), page 127. < 

t Lan, M. M., Camphus du Tonkin. Bulletin Economique, Gouvernement 
General de L'indo-Chine. New Series Volume 9 (1907), page 192. 



ESSENTIAL OILS 



221 




FIGURE 73. BLUMEA BALSAMIFERA (SAMB6NG), A SOURCE OF CAMPHOR. Xi. 



222 PHILIPPINE RESINS, GUMS, AND OILS 

per year, which would give a possible borneol yield of from 50 * 
to 200 kilos per hectare. Although this plant grows vigorously 
in the Philippines, it is questionable if it could be cultivated 
profitably. 

Blumea balsamifera is a coarse, erect, half -woody herb 1.5 to 
3 meters in height. The stems are 2.5 centimeters in diam- 
eter. The leaves are from 7 to 20 centimeters in length, spear 
shaped, and with toothed margins and short petioles. 

This species grows very abundantly in waste places in the 
Philippines. It is frequently found in grass areas, as it readily 
sprouts from the ground after the aerial parts of the plant have 
been killed by fire. It is thus one of the comparatively few 
species of plants which can withstand grass fires. 



INDEX 



A 

Page. 

Abkel ..._ 104 

Abkol 104 

Acacia — - 65 

Acacia farnesiana 13, 70, 202, 203 

Achras sapota 15, 66,71 

Acoro 179 

Acorus calamus 179 

Adiang-au ,— 16 

Afu 60 

Agat 182 

Agathis ^ 27 

Agathis alba .• 14, 16, 17, 19, 21 

Agathis robusta 18 

Agu-u _ 32 

Alal 28 

Alangabun 71 

AlaiTgigan 187 

Alangilan 187 

Alangki 38 

Albahaca 215, 216 

Albahaca de caballo 214 

Aleurites 118 

Aleurites cordata 132 

Aleurites fordii , 118 

Aleurites moluccana 14, 121, 122, 123, 125, 

127, 132, 134, 135 

Aleurites montana 118 

Aleurites trisperma 14, 121, 122, 123 

Alibhon 220 

Alimon , 220 

Alimpuying 181 

Alinsago 16 

' Almacigf. 16, 17, 18, 19, 21 

Almaciga babae , 18 

Almendra de Indias 160 

Alpai _ 148 

Amora 175 

Amoras 175 

Anabun 71 

Anacardiaceae 144 

Anacardium occidentale 144 

Anahauon 52 

Anahau palm 40 

Ananggi 112 

Anangilan 187 

Anangiran 187 

Andropogon citratus 172 

Andropogon nardus %'ar. hamatulus 174 

Andropogon zizanioides 175, 177 

Ange 180 

Angola copal 20 

Anias 175 

Anias de moras 175 



Page. 

Aniiiga 18 

Aningat 18 

Anis de moro _ 175 

Anisoptera thurifera 14, 48, 50, 51, 53 

Annonaceae 187 

Anonang , 86 

Anonang gum _ 86 

Antel 47 

Anteng , 18, 38, 47 

Antipole 68 

Anubing 67, 68 

Anubing gum 68 

Anubling , 68 

Apitong 48, 50, 52. 55, 56, 57, 59, 60 

Apitong resin 54 

Apnit 50 

Apocynaceae 82, 166 

Araceae 179 

Arach'Is hypogaea 106 

Arangen 145, 147 

Aroma 13, 70, 202, 203 

Artocarpus 66 

Artocarpus cumingiana 67, 68 

Artocai-pus elastica 68, 69 

Arunggai 102 

Aspergillus flavus 98 

Aspergillus niger 98 

Ataiigen 212 

Azafran 180 

B 

Bagambang 71 

Bagbalogo 206 

Bagilumbang ..., 121, 122, 132, 133, 134, 135 

Bagilumbang oil 132 

Bagobalong 50 

Bagtik 18 

Bagusalai 145 

Rahugbahug 214 

Bakalau 148 

BaKoog 38 

Balanai 215 

Balanoi 215. 216 

Balau 14, 54, 64 

Balau resin 54, 60 

Balayong 36 

Balibo 28 

Balik-balik 109 

Balimbingan , 148 

Balin^kauayan 103 

Balios - 148 

Balita 115 

Balobalo 109 

Baltik 18 

223 



224 



INDEX 



Page. 

Balubad 144 

Baliibar 144 

Baliibat 144 

Balubitoon 159 

Balubog 144 

Balukanad 132 

Balukanag 115, 117, 132 

Balukanag oil 115 

Baluk-baluk 109 

Balunggai 102 

Balutbalut 109 

Banato 140 

Banato oil 140 

Bandabok 66 

Bangar 152 

Bangat 152 

Bani _ , 109, 111 

Banitis 164 

Banukalag 132 

Baobao 109 

Baraibai 166 

Baraibai oil 166 

Barak ,... 180, 181 

Baraniw 172 

Barringtonia asiatica 159 

Barringtonia racemosa 160 

Basanglai 148 

Basiad , 112 

Bassia betis 163, 164, 165 

Basuit 103 

Batarau 154 

Batete 205, 206, 207 

Batete incense 206 

Batuakan 115 

Batuban ,... 144 

Bauing 215 

Bayongboi 115 

Bayuko 68 

Benguet pine 28, 29, 31, 33 

Ben oil 102 

Betes ,... 50 

Betis 163, 164, 165 

Betis-lalaki 164 

Betis oil 164 

Biao 122 

Biayo 18 

Bidai 215, 216 

Bidiangau 18 

Bilua 71 

Biliian 71 

Biluan-lalaki 71 

Bllunga 71 

Bing-iia 71 

Binuga 71 

Binunga 71 

Binuiiga gum ,... 71 

Binungan 71 

Bitaog 154, 157 

Bitaog oil 156 

Bitaoi 154 

Bitong 156 

Bitoon , 159 

Bit-taog 156 

Bittog 156 



Page. • 

Black mold 98 

Blumea balsamifera 9, 220, 221 

Bobog 152 

Boboi 148 

Boho-boho 214 

Boiboi 148 

Bolongkoyan 103 

Bombacaceae , 148 

Booboo 28 

Booton 159 

Borneo copal , 20 

Borneo tallow 158 

Borraginaceae 86 

Boton 159 

Botong 159 

Boton oil 159 

Brea 47 

Brea blanca 40 

Brown mold 98 

Bubui 148 

Bubiir 152 

Bueng 179 

Bugkau 212 

Bukadkad 220 

Bukkau 212 

Biilak 148 

Bulak-dondol 148 

Biilak-kastila 148 

Biilak-sino 148 

Bulala 148 

Bulala oil 148 

Bulau 38 

Bulbul 28 

Bungkalot 210 

Bungog 152 

Bunsog 18 

Burak 187 

Burseraceae 38, 40, 112 

Butalau 156 

Butter substitute 90, 91, 101, 168 

c 

Calamus oil 179 

Calophyllum blancoi , 157 

Calophyllum inophyllum 154, 155 

Cameroon copal 20 

Camphor 220 

Canangium odoratum 14, 187. 189, 191 

Canarium 41, 48 

Catiarium luzonicum 14, 38, 39, 47, 48, 115 

Canarium ovatum 112, 113 

Canarium pachyphyllum ~ 114 

Canarium villosum 14, 47, 49 

Candles 91. 101, 109, 138, 158 

Canela 198, 200 

Cardole 144 

Cashew nut , 144 

Cashew-nut oil 144 

Cassie flower 202 

Cassie-flower oil 202 

Castor oil 141 

Castor-oil plant 141 

Caulking material 18, 40, 47, 50, 54, 60 

Cebollas del monte 66 



INDEX 



225 



Page. 

Ceiba pentandra. 148, 149 

Celastraceae 145 

Celastrus paniculata 145 

Cerbera manghas 166 

Champaka 183, 185 

Champakang-pula 183 

Chainpakang-puti 186 

Champakang-puti oil 186 

Champaka oil 183 

Chewing gum ,... 68, 71 

Chico 15, 66, 71 

Chisocheton pentandrus 115, 116, 117, 119 

Chonemorpha elastica 82, 83, 84 

Cinnamomum iners 197, 198 

Cinnamomum mercadoi 198, 199 

Cinnamomum mindanaense ,... 200, 201 

Cinnamomum zeylanicum 



202 

Cinnamon 198, 202 

Citronella oil 174 

Citrus decumana 208 

Citrus hystrix 206, 209 

Citrus micrantha var. microcarpa.... 208, 211 

Citrus sp 210 

Clausena anisum-olens 210,213 

Coconut oil 91 

Coconut palm , 91, 93 

Coconuts 95, 97, 99 

Cocos nucifera 91 

Combretaceae 160 

Compositae 220 

Condiment 172, 180, 182, 198, 202 

Cooking oil 91, 102, 110, 114, 148, 154, 158 

Copra 91 

Cordia myxa 86 

Coronitas 214 

bosmetic ,... 91, 116, 118 

Cotton tree 148 

Croton oil 136 

Croton-oil plant 136 

Croton tiglium 136, 137 

Curcuma longa ,... 180 

Curcuma zedoaria ,... 180, 181 



Dadiangau 
Dadungoi . 

Dagang 

Dagkalan . 
Dagum 



D 

18 

18 

50 

156 

50 

Dalau 179, 180 

Dalisai 160 

Dalit , 47 

Dammara alba 27 

Danggai 206 

Dangkaan 156 

Dangkalan 156 

Danlog ,... 52 

Darau 179 

Darayau 103 

Dauag 212 

Dayap-dayapan 210 

^engau 179 

Diana , 70 

Digger pine 104 

168837 15 



Page. 
Dilau 180 

Dilau oil igg 

Dilau-pula igg 

Dili : 103 

Dingo 104 

Dipterocarpaceae ,... 43^ 153 

Dipterocarpus 14^ 43 

Dipterocarpus grandiflorus 14, 48, 50, 52, 66, 

57, 59. 60, 62 
Dipterocarpus vernicifluun.... 14, 48. 50, 60, 61, 

63,64 

Diualat 115 

Dogdol 148 

Doldol ^ 143 

Dondol 148 

Dudos 115 

Duen 52, 60 

Dugtung-ahas 35, gg 

Duka 206 

Duko 52 

Dulau 180 

Dungurungut 206 

Duung 50 

Duyong 50 

E 

Edible oil 91, 101„ 102, 107, 112, 144, 148, 

159, 162, 166, 168 

Elaeis guineensis 15, loi 

Entada phaseoloides 208, 210 

Essential oils 171 

Euphorbiaceae 71, 118 

F 

Flacourtiaceae 159 

Flavoring 173, 179, 182, 200, 210 

Food oil 158 

Fuel ,... 47 

G 

Gala-gala 13 

Galumbang 133 

Gamboge 7. 16 

Gamu 71 

Gan-an 60 

Ganda 18I 

Ganophyllum falcatum 145, 147 

Gapas 148 

Garcinia 16 

Garcinia venulosa 16 

Gasi ^ 136 

Gauai-gauai 70 

Gaui-gaui 70 

Gengibre 182 

Geodorum nutans 66 

Geodorum nutans gum _ 66 

Geron 175 

Ginabang 71 

Ginger 132 

Giret 47 

Giron _ 175 

Gisok 168 

Glue 66, 70, 71, 86 

Gogo 172 

Gogolingin 145 



226 



INDEX 



Gogong-langil 

Goma 

Gramineae 

Green mold 

Ground nut... 
Giigo 



Page. 

145 

82 

172 

98 

106 

145 

Gum, chewing _ _ 68, 71 

Gumihan _ 68, 69 

Gumihan gum 68 

Gum resins i , 16 

Gums 65 

Gurofig-guro 210 

Gutta-percha _ 74, 75, 77, 79, 80 

Guttiferae 154 

H 



Hagakhak 

Halas 

Hernandiaceae 

Hernandia ovigsra 

Hernandia ovigera oil.. 

Hevea braziliensis 

Himpagtan 

Hingkamas 



., 52 

145 

101 

101 

101 

65 

52 

108 

Holy basil 216 

Holy basil oil 216 

Hopea 158, 159 

Hopea acuminata 50 

Horse-radish tree 102 

Hydrogenation 90 



Igiu ; 116 

Ikding nga piirau 86 

Ilang-ilang 14, 187, 189, 191 

Ilang-ilang oil , 187 

Ilib 175 

niuminant 18. 36, 40, 47, 50, 54, 60, 91, 101, 

102, 104, 107, 109, 114, 115, 118, 

122, 124, 132, 138, 140, 146, 152, 

156, 159, 160, 164, 166, 168 

Imperata exaltata 131 

Incense 18, 206 

Indian almond oil 162 

Inggiu na puti 86 

Isis 68 

Isoptera - 158 

Isoptera borneensis 50, 158 

J. 

Jatropha curcas 138, 139 

Jatropha multifida 140 



Kfibiling ,.,.,,,.-, 217 

Kablin . , 9, 217, 219 

Kabling , 217 

Kabugau 208 

Kaburau 210 

Kabuyau 206. 209 

Kabuyau oil...; 208 

Kachui r 14! 

Kadel 109 

Kadlin .,..........,,,. 217 

Kadling , 217 

Kadlom 217 



rag^ 

Kadliim 217 

Kakao-kakao 148 

Kalamunggai 102 

Kalapia 74 

Kalauag 180 

Kalauahan 68 

Kalibon 220 

Kalibura 220 

Kalikit 206 

Kalimotain 115 

Kalii^ad 198 

KaliiTgag 198, 199 

Kalingag cil 200 

Kalipaya 73, 74 

Kaliii 216 

Kalumpang 151, 152, 153 

Kalumpang oil 152 

Kalunggai 102 

Kalusiiban 60 

Kalu-ui 215 

Kamachile 108 

Kamachile oil 108 

Kamah 108 

Kamaisa 136 

Kamalunggai 102 

Kamalunggi 102 

Kamandag 68 

Kamai^i 215, 216 

Kamangkau 216 

Kamas 108 

Kamausa ,... 136 

Kamulau 208 

Kamuntai 208 

Kamiiyau 52, 60, 208 

Kandaroma 198 

Kanila 198* 

Kanilao 198 

Kaningai 198 

Kanubling 68 

Kapah 148 

Kapak 148 

Kapas 148 

Kapas-sanglai 148 

Kapitan 208 

Kapok 148, 14 * 

Kapok oil 148 

Kapos 148 

Karayo 148 

Karkarsang 86 

Karumpang 152 

Kasanglai 148 

Kasiu 198 

Kasla 136 

Kasoi 144 

Kasui , 144 

Katana 141 

Katigau 216 

Kato 115 

Katong-bakalau 116 

Katong-machin 116, 119 

Katong-machin oil 116 

Katudai ,.. 70 

Katiirai , 70 

Katurai gum... 70 

Katiiri 70 



INDEX 



227 



Page. 

Kauri pine 18 

Kayo 148 

Kayu-galu 35, 36 

Kayu-Kji lu oil ^ 36 

Kayumani's 210, 213 

Khas-kh£is 179 

Khus-khus 179 

Kingiodendron alternifolium 205, 206, 207 

Kirisol 138 

Kogon ,. 131 

Kclison 210 

Koliurg 68 

Kolobot 208 

Kolokogo 216 

Koniko 181 

Koribo , 47 

JCoron-koron 101 

Kosing 144 

Kubi ..._ 68 

Kula 66 

Kulalau 180 

Kuliuan 198 

Kumagasaka 206 

Kunig ,... 180 

Kuni na puti 86 

Kurimau 60 

Kus-kus 175 

Kutkut timbalong 160 

Ti 

Labauel , 71 

Labiatae 215, 216 

Ladiangau 18 

Lagoon 71 

Lagau , 71 

•Laguan 148 

Lakadbulan 220 

Lakamas 108 

Lamilan , 60 

Lampoyang 181 

Langa 166 

LaiTgis 104, 166 

Lansina 141 

Lantana 214 

^antana camara 214 

Lantana oil r 214 

Lasuit :.... 103 

Lauan , 50, 60 

Lauan puti 50 

Lauraceae 198 

Laxative 115, 154 

Laya 182 

Leather, patent 18 

Lecythidaceae 159 

Leguminosae 36, 70, 106, 202 

Lemon grass , 172 

Lemon-grass oil 172 

Lengnga 166 

Letis 50, 52 

Ligabon 71 

Limon-karabau 208 

Linga 166 

♦Lingnga 166 

Linoleum 118, 124, 132 

Lipot 60 



Page. 

Lipus ..„..,„ 60 

Lipiiti 112 

Lisid 82, 83 

Livistona 40 

Logo 160 

Lokoloko 216 

Longbayau 206 

Lotions 91 

Lubigan 179 

Lubi-lubi 66 

Lubricant 138, 141, 158, 168 

Lugo 159 

Lumbang.... 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 132 

Lumbang-banukalad 132 

Lumbang-bato 122 

Lumbang-giibat 132 

Lumbang oil 118. 122 

Lunga 166 

Luivgakan 71 

Lupi-it 86 

Luya 182 

Luyaluyahan 181 

Luyang-dilau !......!.! .!!!!!.! 180 

M - 

Ma-asim 71 

Macaranga tanarius ;; 71 

Magabalogo ; ...:.;: :;;.. ,... 206 

Magau ;.;; 216 

Magit 109 

Magnoliaceae , 183 

Makalsa i 115 

Makasla ;;...; 1^ 

Makatba 2(6 

Makau l*^ 

Mala-atis 5^ 

MaJabunga . 71 

Malakalad 115 

Malakmalak , 166 

Malakmalak oil -166 

Malampulian 148 

Malapaho 52, 60 

Malapi 136 

Malapili 38 
Malatumbaga 116,145 

Mallotus philippiren&is 140 

Malugai :... 102 

Malunggai 102 

Malungga! 112 

Mamales 103 

Mamalis 103 

Mamalis cil '. •--..v-r ^^^ 

Mana ..■..'.'..'.."..'; 140 

Mana oil 140 

Manapo 36 

Mani 106 

Manila copal r 18 

Manila elemi 40 

Manilig 164 

Manogbayo 206 

Manunggal 112 

Manunggal oil 112 

Marachuite .....^ 136 

Maramabolo 115 

Marangis • - 148 



228 



INDEX 



Page. 

Margarine 90, 91, 101, 168 

Marokbarok 109 

Maronggoi 102 

Marunggai 102 

MatataJina 60 

Mayapis 50, 52 

Meliaceae 115 

Michelia champaca 185, 186, 183 

Michelia longiflora 186 

Milipili , 47 

Mindanao cinnamom 200, 201 

Mindang 71 

Mindoro pine 32, 34 

Minunga ''I 

Mora — • 1"5 

Moraceae 68 

Moras 175, 177. 178 

Moringaceae 102 

Moringa oleifera 102 

Muntai 210 

Naseberry - -- 72 

Nephelium lappaceum 146 

Nephelium mutabile 148 

O 

Obien 68 

Ocimum basilicum 215 

Ocimum sanctum 216 

Odo 145 

Oil cake 91. 126, 135, 150. 168 

OU palm 15. 101 

Ointment 40, 102. 168 

Oleomargarine , 90, 91 

Oleoresins 16 

Oleum nigrum 145 

01-61 28 

Oplai 103 

Orchidaceae 66 



Pachyrrhizus erosus 108 

Padsahingin 60 

Pagsahiiigan 52 

Pagsahingin 40, 47, 49, 60 

Pagsahingin resin 47 

PagsaiiTgin 38, 60 

Paina ■ 206 

Paint 36, 118, 124, 132, 152 

Pakalsa 115 

Paksahingin 47 

Palaquium ahernianum 78, 74 

Palaquium oleiferum 166 

Palaquium oleosum 166 

Palaquium philippense 166 

Palaupalau 159 

Palina 206 

Paling r 160 

Palmae 91 

Palomaria 156, 206 

Palomaria de la playa 154, 155, 156 

Palosapis 48, 50, 51, 53 

Palosapis resin 50 

Palsahingin , 40, 47 

Palumpung 145 

Palm oil - 101 



Page. 

Pamalalien 52 

Pamalat'angen 116 

Pamantulen 52, 60 

Pamarnisen 52. 60 

Pamittaogen , 156 

Panau 48, 52, 60, 61, 63, 64 

Panau resin 60 

Panau verdadero 52 

PaiTganto-an 103 

Pangi 159 

Pangium edule 159 

Pangyau 148 

Pantog-lobo 101 

Parameria philippinensis 85, 86, 87 

Pararan 145 

Parashorea malaanonan , 50 

Parina 36. 206^ 

Partaan 86 

28 



Parua 

Parugtong-ahas 

Pasak 

Pasguik 

Paste 



86 

164 

103 

86 

Patchouli _ 217. 219 

Patchouli oil 217 

Patent leather 18 

Patsaingin 47 

Payena leerii 80. 81 

Payina 206 

Peanut 106 

Peanut oil 106 

Pedaliaceae , 166 

Penicillium glaucum 98 

Pentacme contorta 50 

Peres -' 208^ 

Perfume 36, 172. 174, 175, 179, 181. 183, 186, 

187, 202, 208, 210, 212, 215, 217 

Petroleum nut 104, 105 

Petroleum-nut oil 104 

Physic nut 138 

Physic-nut oil r 138 

Piagau 116 

Piagau oil 116 

Pianga 16^ 

Pilauai 112 

Pilaui 112 

Pili „ 38. 39, 40, 112, 113 

Pili-nut oil 112 

Pinaceae 16 

Pino 18 

Pinus insularis 14. 28. 29, 31, 32, 33 

Pinus merkusii 14, 32, 34 

Pinus sabiniana 104 

i^isa 40, 47 

Pithecolobium dulce 108, 109 

Pitjoeng oil 159 

Pittosporaceae 103 

Pittosporum pentandrum 103 

Pittosporum resiniferum 104, 105 

Pogostemon cablin , 217, 219 

Pongamia mitis 109 

Pongamia pinnata 14, 109, li:^ 

Pongam oil 109 

Preservative 124, 141 

Pulang-pulang r 86 

Purgative 115, 136, 138, 141 



INDEX 



229 



Page. 

Putad 160 

Pvitat , 160 

Putat oil 160 

R 

Rambutan 146 

Rambutan tallow 146 

Resins 16 

Rhizopus sp 98 

Ricinus communis 141, 143 

Rimodas 175 

Rimora 175 

Rimoras 175 

Rubber 82, 86 

Rutaceae 206, 212 

S 

' Saboagron 103 

Sabodilla 72 

Sada 86 

Sagaga 104 

Sahing 28, 40 

Saing 28 

Salad oil 102, 107 

Salagin 115 

Salaisau 160 

Salalangin _ 206 

Saleng 28, 145 

Saligau 136 

Salikiit 74 

Saling 47 

Salingkugi 109 

Salisai 160 

Salit 32 

Salong 18, 28 

4 Salukut 74 

Salves 91 

Samadera indica 112 

Samak 71 

Sambalduke ,... 144 

Sambon 220 

Sambong 9, 220, 221 

Sambong oil 220 

Samiling 198 

• Sampaka 183 

Sampalok 110 

Samuk 71 

Samiiyau 208, 211 

Samuyau oil 208 

Sanglai 148 

Saong , 28 

Saong-saong 47 

Sapindaceae 145 

Sapotaceae 71, 164 

Sapotilla 72 

Sarok 206, 217 

Saung 28 

Savidug 160 

Scrub pine 28 

Sealing wax 18 

Seed oils 88 

Sesame 166 

* Sesame oil 166 

Sesamum orientale 166, 167 

Sesbania grandiflora ,... 70 



Page. 

Shorea 158, 159 

Shorea halangeran 50, 158 

Shorea eximia 50 

Shorea negrosensis 50 

Shorea palosapis 50 

Shorea polysperma 50 

Sierra Leone copal 20 

Sikamas jo8 

Simarubaceae i]^2 

Sindora inermis 35 3g 

Sindora supa i4_ 35 37 

Singkamas jQg 

Singkamas oil jQg 

Sinkamas jQg 

Sinsiid 3g 

Size, paper _ jg 

Skin, artificial m 

Smudge jg 

Soap 18, 91. 101, 107, 109, 116, 124, 132, 

138, 141, 146, 148, 156 
Sobosob 220 



Solasi 



215 



Sterculiaceae 152 

Sterculia foetida 14, 151, 152, 153 

Suangi 210 

Subit 212 

Sulasi ^ 216 

Sulu-saiingan 47 

Supa 36, 37 

Supa oil 37 

Sweet basil 215 

Sweet basil oil 215 

Sweet flag 179 

T 

Tabul 47 

Tagulauai ^ gg 

Tagumbau i3g 

Takamain 22O 

Takumbau i3g 

Talampunai ]^4i 

Tah'sai igo_ jgl 

Talisi igo 

Taliu 103 

Tamahilan jgj 

Tamarind-seed oil no 

Tamarindus indica no 

Tambo-tambo i5g 

Tamo ...,.^ igi 

Tangan-tangan 138, 141, 143 

Tangantangan-tuba 138 

TaiTgid 137 

Tangit 187 

Tanglad 172 

Tapulau 32 

Taua-taua i3g 

Tau-ua 133 

Tau-ua-tau-ua 141 

Terminalia catappa 14, 160, 161 

Tibulid 210 

Tikamas 108 

Tinta-tintahan 214 

Titau 18 

Toddalia asiatica 212 

Toddalia asiatica oil 212 



230 



INDEX 



Page. 

Torches 18, 40 

Tragacanth 65 

Transparent paper 36, 40 

Tres moras 175 

Tua-an _ 206 

Tuba 136, 138, 140 

Tubang-bakod 138, 139 

Tubang-makaisa 136 

Tuba-tuba , 136, 138 

Tubli 136 

Tugabi , 145 

Tugtugin 40 

Tugup 68 

Tung oil 118 

Turkey- red oils 141 

Turmeric 180 

Turpentine 28, 32 

u 

Ubien 68 

tjli 18 

UHuan , 198 

Usau 146 

V 

Varnish 18. 20, 24. 36. 40. 42. 50, 54, 60, 110, 

118, 121, 124, 132, 141, 157 
Vatica mangachapoi 50 



Page. 

Verbenaceae 214 

Vetiver 175, 177 

Vetiver oil 175 

Vitivert , 175 

Vutalau 156 

w 

Wax, sealing 18 

White mold 98 

White pitch 40 

White sapota 72 

X 

Xylocarpus moluccensis 116 

Y 

Ya , 72 

Yakal-dilau 36 

Yalisai 160 

Yellow mold 98 

7a 

Zanzibar copal 20 

Zedoary 181 

Zedoary oil , 181 

Zingiberaceae 180 

Zingiber officinale 182 



o 



BUREAIT OF FORESTRY 

MANILA, PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Bulletin No. I (1903). — Report on investigations made in, Java ii 

1902. By Elmer D. MerrilL Out of -print. 
Bulletin No. 2 (1906) .-^The charcoal industry of the Philippine Islands. 

By Wm. M. Maule. Out of print. > 

Bulletin No. 3 (1906). — A compilation of notes on India robber and gutta- 
percha. Out' of fprird. 
Bulletin No. 4 (1906). — ^I. Mechanical tests, properties, and uses of thirty 

Philippine woodSi II. Philippine sawmills* lumber market, and prices. 

By Rolland Gardner. Out of pnnt. 
Bulletin No. 5 (1906). — A preliminary working plan for the public forest 

tract of the Insular Lumber Company, Negros Occidental, P. I. Bv 

H. D. Everett arid H. N. Whitford. Out of print. 
Bulletin No. 6 (1906). — A preliminary working plan for the public forest 

tract of the Mindoro Lumber and Loggihg Company, Bongabon. Mindoro. 

P. I. By M. L. Merritt, and H. N. Whitford. ■ Out of pj'int. 
Bulletin No. 7 (1907).— A preliminary check list of the principal coui- 

mercial timbers of the Philippine Islands. By H, N. Whitford. Out of 

p7'int. 
Bulletin No. 8 (1908).— The forests; of Mindoro. By Melvin L. M 

Out of print. ,. «. 

Bulletin No^ 9 ( 1909). -^A Philippine sunstitute for lignumvitae. By 

Hutchinson, 60 centavos.* 
Bulletin No. 10 (1911).— -The forest of the Philippines. I. Fo-^s. 

and products. II. The principal forest trees. By H. N. Whi 

2.50 pesos. - 

Bulletin No. 11 (1912).— The uses of Philippine woods. Out of prini 
Bulletin No, 12 (1912). — Volume tables for round timber. Compil' 

William Klemme. Out of print. 
Bulletin No. 13 (1915). — Ipil-ipil. A firewood and reforestation 

D. M, Matthews. 50 centavos. 
iJuUetin No. 14 (1916).— Commercial woods of the Philippines; thei 

paration and uses. By E, E. Schneider, 2 pesos, 
ftulletin No. 15 (1918). — Philippine bamboos. By William H. BrOAvi 

Arthur F. Fischer. 1.50 pesos, , 

Bulletin No. 16 (1918).-T-Philippine forest products as sources of paper 

pulp. Kv William H. Brown and Arthur H, Fischer. . 50 centavos. 
Bulletin lio. 17 (1918).— Philippine mangrove swamps. By William TI 

Brown and Arthur F. Fischer. 2 pesos. 
Bulletin No. 18 (1919), — Philippine palms and palm products. By Vv 

H. Brown and Elmer D. Merrill. 1,50 pesos 
Bulletin No. 19 (1919).— Philippine fiber plant-, ^v William H. Im-vy.-: 

1.50 pesos. 
Bulletin No. 20 (1920).— Philippine resins, gums, seed oils, and essentia' 

oils. By Augustus P. West and William H. Brov^n. 8 pesos. 
Bulletin No. 21 (1920).— Wild food plants of the Philippines. By Wmian: 

H. Brown. 2 pesos. 
Bulletin No. 22 (1920). — Minor products of Philippine forests. This bulleti', 

cr.y,i-^\ry^ the material in Bulletins 15-21, and also con?i'-i«T-fiV>io pi,^];*^^., 
edited by William H. Brown. 10 pesos. 



Fifty cents U. S, currency equal 1 peso or 100 centavos. 



SB289 .W4 



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gen 



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